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Laglottens aktualitet - Från blodsband till sociala familjekonstellationer

Widell, Linn LU (2014) LAGF03 20141
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den svenska successionsrätten innefattar en rätt för bröstarvingar att erhålla en laglott. Bestämmelserna har blivit anklagade för att vara föråldrade och har varit omdebatterad såväl i media som i riksdagen. Följande uppsats kommer att undersöka om laglotten har blivit föråldrad och utröna vilka argument som kan tänkas motivera ett bibehållande av lagstiftningen. Syftet är att se hur gällande rätt konvergerar med samhället och dess utveckling. Uppsatsen följer en rättsdogmatisk metod med inslag av ett rättsutvecklande perspektiv, med rättskälleläran som hjälpmedel.

Laglotten har, likt arvsrätten i stort, haft en långsam historisk utveckling. Laglotten uppkom i samma skeende som användandet av testamentet fördes till Sverige.... (More)
Den svenska successionsrätten innefattar en rätt för bröstarvingar att erhålla en laglott. Bestämmelserna har blivit anklagade för att vara föråldrade och har varit omdebatterad såväl i media som i riksdagen. Följande uppsats kommer att undersöka om laglotten har blivit föråldrad och utröna vilka argument som kan tänkas motivera ett bibehållande av lagstiftningen. Syftet är att se hur gällande rätt konvergerar med samhället och dess utveckling. Uppsatsen följer en rättsdogmatisk metod med inslag av ett rättsutvecklande perspektiv, med rättskälleläran som hjälpmedel.

Laglotten har, likt arvsrätten i stort, haft en långsam historisk utveckling. Laglotten uppkom i samma skeende som användandet av testamentet fördes till Sverige. Testamentet tillkom under en tid då blodsband prioriterades och familjen var beroende av jorden för sin överlevnad. Kyrkan förde fram testamentet i en strävan att lagligen erhålla jordegendomar från de troende som sökte frälsning. I ett försök att hindra arvlåtaren från att testamentera bort all sin egendom, infördes laglotten som en begränsning av hur stor andel som fick testamenteras bort. Laglotten tillämpades i praktiken genom praxis och fick inte sin författning förrän år 1857. Trots sin fördröjda placering in i lagtexten, räknas laglotten som ett av fundamenten i svensk successionsrätt.

I dagens arvsrätt är laglottsbestämmelserna i grunden nästintill samstämmiga med hur laglotten tillämpades under medeltiden. Laglotten i gällande rätt innebär att bröstarvingar till arvlåtaren har rätt till hälften av kvarlåtenskapen, utifall att arvlåtaren har upprättat ett testamente som går utöver den så kallade disponibla kvoten och därmed gör intrång på bröstarvingens laglott. Reglerna om laglotten finns idag i det sjunde kapitlet i Ärvdabalken.

Laglotten har omdiskuterats i ett flertal motioner, som alla har blivit avslagna. Det existerar dessutom en debatt i media med advokater som skribenter som debatterar ämnet. Det finns två motstående sidor av debatten, varav den ena anser att bröstarvingarna borde få bibehålla sin rätt till laglott och den andra anser att vi bör ändra lagstiftningen till att istället skydda den efterlevande maken.

Det finns en svårighet i att avskaffa lagstiftningen eftersom det kan uppstå en situation när särkullbarn kan komma att särbehandlas. Därför kan en revidering vara mer motiverat. En förändring bör i varje fall ske, eftersom laglotten är en rättsföreteelse som är föråldrad och samhällets familjekonstellationer skiljer sig från när lagbestämmelserna infördes. Idag har vi flera olika sociala band där gener har inte samma betydelse längre. Vi är inte beroende av arvet för vår försörjning. För att följa samhällets utveckling bör man fokusera på den fria förfoganderätten istället. Istället för att försöka skydda de få fall där ett särkullbarn kan hamna i en säregen position, bör vi ha människans egen vilja som ett prioriterat skyddsvärde. (Less)
Abstract
The Swedish law of succession includes a right for the direct heir to retain a part of the heritage if the deceased have drawn a will. This phenomenon is called statutory share of inheritance (in Swedish: laglott). The regulations have been accused of being out-of-date and have been up for debate in both media as well as in the parliament. Following essay will examine if the statutory share is out-of-date and make out what existing argument is in favour for maintaining of the regulation. The purpose is to examine how the existing law converge with the society and its development. The essay follows a legal dogmatic method with a legislative development-perspective, with a general principle of law as a tool.

The statutory share has, as... (More)
The Swedish law of succession includes a right for the direct heir to retain a part of the heritage if the deceased have drawn a will. This phenomenon is called statutory share of inheritance (in Swedish: laglott). The regulations have been accused of being out-of-date and have been up for debate in both media as well as in the parliament. Following essay will examine if the statutory share is out-of-date and make out what existing argument is in favour for maintaining of the regulation. The purpose is to examine how the existing law converge with the society and its development. The essay follows a legal dogmatic method with a legislative development-perspective, with a general principle of law as a tool.

The statutory share has, as well as the entire law of succession, had a slow historical development. Statutory share developed at the same time as the will emerged in Sweden. The will came into being during a time when the bloodline was of the highest priority and the family was depending on the soil for their survival. The church brought forth the will in an attempt to legally obtain domain from the believers, who sought salvation. In an attempt to prevent the deceased from giving away all of his or her property, the statutory share was imposed as a limitation of how large amount that was allowed to put in a will. Statutory share was practised through custom and did not receive its place in the Statute until the year of 1857. Even though it emerged slowly into the Statute, the statutory share counts as one of the fundaments in Swedish law of succession.

In the existing law of inheritance in Sweden, the statutory share regulation is similar to how the statutory share was practised during the middle age. According to applicable law, the direct heir has a right to gain half of the property in heritage, if the deceased have drawn a will that trespasses the disposable quota, which is the part of the heritage that the deceased are allowed to dispose of through a will. The law of statutory share is to be found in the seventh chapter in the Inheritance Code (in Swedish: Ärvdabalken).

Statutory share have been discussed in multiple motions, which all have been dismissed, and it have also been debated in media with lawyers as the writers. There are two opposing sides of the debate, where on one side they believe that the direct heir should keep their right to the statutory share and the other side believes that we ought to change the law to protect the remaining spouse.

It does exist a difficulty if we were to abolish the law, since it might occur a situation where a child from a previous marriage might be discriminated. For that reason it might be more motivated to revise the law. However, a change must take place, since the statutory share is out-of-date and the society’s family-constellation differs from the time when the law was imposed. In the society of today, we have all kinds of different sorts of social ties. Genes do not matter as much as it used to do. We are no longer dependent on our heritage for our existence and to be able to follow the society’s development we ought to focus on the free disposal instead. Instead of trying to protect the few situations where the child from a previous marriage puts in a peculiar position, we ought to make the humans free will a priority. (Less)
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author
Widell, Linn LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20141
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
familjerätt, laglott, testamente, arvsrätt, rättshistoria
language
Swedish
id
4449361
date added to LUP
2014-06-19 07:46:16
date last changed
2014-06-19 07:46:16
@misc{4449361,
  abstract     = {The Swedish law of succession includes a right for the direct heir to retain a part of the heritage if the deceased have drawn a will. This phenomenon is called statutory share of inheritance (in Swedish: laglott). The regulations have been accused of being out-of-date and have been up for debate in both media as well as in the parliament. Following essay will examine if the statutory share is out-of-date and make out what existing argument is in favour for maintaining of the regulation. The purpose is to examine how the existing law converge with the society and its development. The essay follows a legal dogmatic method with a legislative development-perspective, with a general principle of law as a tool.

The statutory share has, as well as the entire law of succession, had a slow historical development. Statutory share developed at the same time as the will emerged in Sweden. The will came into being during a time when the bloodline was of the highest priority and the family was depending on the soil for their survival. The church brought forth the will in an attempt to legally obtain domain from the believers, who sought salvation. In an attempt to prevent the deceased from giving away all of his or her property, the statutory share was imposed as a limitation of how large amount that was allowed to put in a will. Statutory share was practised through custom and did not receive its place in the Statute until the year of 1857. Even though it emerged slowly into the Statute, the statutory share counts as one of the fundaments in Swedish law of succession. 

In the existing law of inheritance in Sweden, the statutory share regulation is similar to how the statutory share was practised during the middle age. According to applicable law, the direct heir has a right to gain half of the property in heritage, if the deceased have drawn a will that trespasses the disposable quota, which is the part of the heritage that the deceased are allowed to dispose of through a will. The law of statutory share is to be found in the seventh chapter in the Inheritance Code (in Swedish: Ärvdabalken). 

Statutory share have been discussed in multiple motions, which all have been dismissed, and it have also been debated in media with lawyers as the writers. There are two opposing sides of the debate, where on one side they believe that the direct heir should keep their right to the statutory share and the other side believes that we ought to change the law to protect the remaining spouse. 

It does exist a difficulty if we were to abolish the law, since it might occur a situation where a child from a previous marriage might be discriminated. For that reason it might be more motivated to revise the law. However, a change must take place, since the statutory share is out-of-date and the society’s family-constellation differs from the time when the law was imposed. In the society of today, we have all kinds of different sorts of social ties. Genes do not matter as much as it used to do. We are no longer dependent on our heritage for our existence and to be able to follow the society’s development we ought to focus on the free disposal instead. Instead of trying to protect the few situations where the child from a previous marriage puts in a peculiar position, we ought to make the humans free will a priority.},
  author       = {Widell, Linn},
  keyword      = {familjerätt,laglott,testamente,arvsrätt,rättshistoria},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Laglottens aktualitet - Från blodsband till sociala familjekonstellationer},
  year         = {2014},
}