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Livstidsstraffet i förändring

Mois, Celine LU (2014) JURM02 20141
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den centrala frågan i denna framställning är huruvida det finns ett behov av förändring vad gäller livstidsstraffet i Sverige, och om frågan besvaras jakande, vad förändringen i så fall skulle bestå av. För att kunna besvara frågeställningen på ett tillfredställande sätt jämförs det svenska livstidsstraffet med de engelska och norska påföljdssystemen.

Inledningsvis redogörs för olika bestraffningsteorier och principer som har präglat det svenska straffsystemets uppbyggnad. Livstidsstraffet har genomgått en rad olika paradigmskiften och vårt nuvarande differentierade påföljdssystem beaktar såväl principer om proportionalitet och ekvivalens som återfallsrisk och behandlingsprognos. Vidare görs en kort genomgång av livstidsstraffets... (More)
Den centrala frågan i denna framställning är huruvida det finns ett behov av förändring vad gäller livstidsstraffet i Sverige, och om frågan besvaras jakande, vad förändringen i så fall skulle bestå av. För att kunna besvara frågeställningen på ett tillfredställande sätt jämförs det svenska livstidsstraffet med de engelska och norska påföljdssystemen.

Inledningsvis redogörs för olika bestraffningsteorier och principer som har präglat det svenska straffsystemets uppbyggnad. Livstidsstraffet har genomgått en rad olika paradigmskiften och vårt nuvarande differentierade påföljdssystem beaktar såväl principer om proportionalitet och ekvivalens som återfallsrisk och behandlingsprognos. Vidare görs en kort genomgång av livstidsstraffets utveckling för att förklara hur straffet fått sin nuvarande betydelse. Livstidsstraffet har ersatt dödsstraffet som påföljd för de grövsta brotten och är numera lagens strängaste straff.

I prop. 2013/14:194 Skärpt straff för mord presenterar regeringen ett förslag om att livstidsstraffet ska kunna användas i betydligt större utsträckning samt utgöra normalpåföljden i den bemärkelsen att det förutses dömas ut i majoriteten av fallen. Detta innebär i praktiken att fler som döms för mord ska dömas till fängelse på livstid. Enligt gällande rätt leder många av dessa gärningar idag till ett kortare tidsbestämt straff. Riksdagen biföll den 29 april 2014 förslaget och lagändringen träder i kraft den 1 juli 2014. Den kommande lagändringen kan komma att påverka proportionaliteten i påföljdssystemet samt rättssäkerheten negativt. Denna uppsats diskuterar huruvida det finns ett behov av den förändring som regeringen föreslår.

Som ett ytterligare led i besvarandet av uppsatsens huvudfråga utreds och analyseras för- och motargument som framförs gällande livstidsstraffet och dess utformning samt hur den rättspolitiska debatten ser ut i de valda länderna. I Sverige diskuteras problematiken med omvandlingsförfarandet och den riskbedömning som ska ligga till grund för en eventuell omvandling av det tidsobetämda straffet. Argument kring försvårandet av en meningsfull verkställighet och bristande rättssäkerhet lyfts särskilt fram. Det starkaste argumentet för livstidsstraffet anses vara samhällsskyddsaspekten. I England kritiseras främst det livsvariga livstidsstraffet där livstidsdömda riskerar nekas prövning om frigivning. Vidare kritiseras det obligatoriska livstidsstraffet för mord i England eftersom det i praktiken inte innebär ett livsvarigt fängelsestraff.

Genom en jämförelse med Norge dras slutsatsen att livstidsstraffet är en rättsosäker påföljd som dessutom är föråldrad. Kritiken som riktats mot förvaringsstraffet tar främst sikte på tillförlitligheten av de riskbedömningar som ligger till grund för frigivningsprövningen. Däremot p.g.a. möjligheten att förlänga straffet fem år i taget ger förvaringsstraffet den dömde hopp om att frihetsberövandet inte nödvändigtvis kommer att bli alltför långvarigt. Uppsatsens slutsats blir därmed att det finns ett behov av förändring gällande livstidsstraffet där en liknande lösning som den i Norge är ett lämpligt alternativ. (Less)
Abstract
The main point of this thesis is whether or not there is a need for modifications of the life sentence in Sweden, and should that be the case, how that modification is supposed to be constructed. To answer this in an adequate manner, the Swedish life sentence is going to be compared to the English and Norwegian equivalents.

To start with, an account of different theories on penalization and principles that have embossed the Swedish penal system’s construction will be given. The life sentence has gone through a number of different paradigm shifts and our current differentiated penal system considers both the risk for a relapse into crime and the prognosis for treatment. A short review of the development of the life sentence will be made... (More)
The main point of this thesis is whether or not there is a need for modifications of the life sentence in Sweden, and should that be the case, how that modification is supposed to be constructed. To answer this in an adequate manner, the Swedish life sentence is going to be compared to the English and Norwegian equivalents.

To start with, an account of different theories on penalization and principles that have embossed the Swedish penal system’s construction will be given. The life sentence has gone through a number of different paradigm shifts and our current differentiated penal system considers both the risk for a relapse into crime and the prognosis for treatment. A short review of the development of the life sentence will be made in order to explain how the penalty has evolved into its current importance. The life sentence has replaced the death penalty in punishing the most serious of crimes and is currently the harshest penalty the law prescribes.

In a proposition, the Swedish government suggests that the life sentence should be possible to use on a much wider scale and be the normal sentence in the manner that it will be used on a majority of cases. In practice, this means that more people sentenced for murder will receive life imprisonment as a penalty. According to the law many of the deeds committed by these criminal leads to a shorter, fixed term sentence. The Swedish Parliament approved this proposition on April 29th 2014 and it will come into effect on July 1st 2014. This coming legislation could come to affect the proportionality of the penal system and the Rule of Law in a negative manner. This thesis argues on whether there is such a need as the government suggests.

To further address the thesis’ main issue, the arguments for and against the life sentence and its legal construction will be examined and analysed as will the legal debate in the chosen countries. In Sweden, the issue of converting the penalties and the risk assessment, which are to be the foundation for a possible conversion of the non-fixed term penalty, are debated. Arguments about the aggravation of a meaningful enforcement and the lacking Rule of Law are addressed. The strongest arguments for life sentencing are considered to be the aspect of societal protection. In England, the whole-life order where convicts sentenced to life imprisonment and denied the possibility of parole is the target of criticism. Also, the mandatory life sentence for murder in England is criticized since it, in practice, does not actually mean imprisonment for life.

By a comparison to Norway, the deduction that the life sentence is a legally insecure sentence and out-of-date punishment is made. The criticism towards preventive detention is mainly aimed at the reliability of the risk assessments on which the trial of parole is founded. On the other hand, based on the possibility to extend the sentence by five years at the time, preventive detention gives the convict hope of that the imprisonment not necessarily has to last for too long. The conclusion of this thesis is therefore that there is a need for change in regard to the life sentence where a solution similar to the one in Norway is a suitable option. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Mois, Celine LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The life sentence in change
course
JURM02 20141
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, Livstids fängelse, mord, straff, komparativ rätt
language
Swedish
id
4451161
date added to LUP
2014-06-12 08:56:23
date last changed
2014-06-12 08:56:23
@misc{4451161,
  abstract     = {The main point of this thesis is whether or not there is a need for modifications of the life sentence in Sweden, and should that be the case, how that modification is supposed to be constructed. To answer this in an adequate manner, the Swedish life sentence is going to be compared to the English and Norwegian equivalents.

To start with, an account of different theories on penalization and principles that have embossed the Swedish penal system’s construction will be given. The life sentence has gone through a number of different paradigm shifts and our current differentiated penal system considers both the risk for a relapse into crime and the prognosis for treatment. A short review of the development of the life sentence will be made in order to explain how the penalty has evolved into its current importance. The life sentence has replaced the death penalty in punishing the most serious of crimes and is currently the harshest penalty the law prescribes.

In a proposition, the Swedish government suggests that the life sentence should be possible to use on a much wider scale and be the normal sentence in the manner that it will be used on a majority of cases. In practice, this means that more people sentenced for murder will receive life imprisonment as a penalty. According to the law many of the deeds committed by these criminal leads to a shorter, fixed term sentence. The Swedish Parliament approved this proposition on April 29th 2014 and it will come into effect on July 1st 2014. This coming legislation could come to affect the proportionality of the penal system and the Rule of Law in a negative manner. This thesis argues on whether there is such a need as the government suggests.

To further address the thesis’ main issue, the arguments for and against the life sentence and its legal construction will be examined and analysed as will the legal debate in the chosen countries. In Sweden, the issue of converting the penalties and the risk assessment, which are to be the foundation for a possible conversion of the non-fixed term penalty, are debated. Arguments about the aggravation of a meaningful enforcement and the lacking Rule of Law are addressed. The strongest arguments for life sentencing are considered to be the aspect of societal protection. In England, the whole-life order where convicts sentenced to life imprisonment and denied the possibility of parole is the target of criticism. Also, the mandatory life sentence for murder in England is criticized since it, in practice, does not actually mean imprisonment for life.

By a comparison to Norway, the deduction that the life sentence is a legally insecure sentence and out-of-date punishment is made. The criticism towards preventive detention is mainly aimed at the reliability of the risk assessments on which the trial of parole is founded. On the other hand, based on the possibility to extend the sentence by five years at the time, preventive detention gives the convict hope of that the imprisonment not necessarily has to last for too long. The conclusion of this thesis is therefore that there is a need for change in regard to the life sentence where a solution similar to the one in Norway is a suitable option.},
  author       = {Mois, Celine},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,Livstids fängelse,mord,straff,komparativ rätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Livstidsstraffet i förändring},
  year         = {2014},
}