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Värdering av ekosystemtjänster i det Skånska jordbrukslandskapet - Ur lantbrukatens perspektiv

Nilsson, Rebecka LU (2014) MVEM12 20141
Studies in Environmental Science
Abstract
Ecosystem services are becoming increasingly important in today’s society, since they provide us with vital resources such as food and fuel. Even though this importance is evident, ecosystem services are often taken for granted. Because of this it is essential to shed light on the importance of ecosystem services. One way to do this is to valuate these services in monetary terms.
The purpose of this report is to investigate if the value of two ecosystem services; pollination and biological control potentially is high enough to compensate for the loss of agricultural land that is needed to provide these services. This valuation is made from a farmer’s perspective since it is agricultural land, used as buffer zones adjacent to water, which... (More)
Ecosystem services are becoming increasingly important in today’s society, since they provide us with vital resources such as food and fuel. Even though this importance is evident, ecosystem services are often taken for granted. Because of this it is essential to shed light on the importance of ecosystem services. One way to do this is to valuate these services in monetary terms.
The purpose of this report is to investigate if the value of two ecosystem services; pollination and biological control potentially is high enough to compensate for the loss of agricultural land that is needed to provide these services. This valuation is made from a farmer’s perspective since it is agricultural land, used as buffer zones adjacent to water, which provide the ecosystem services that are valued in this report. In this case a farmer’s perspective means that the farmer’s income has been calculated for three plausible scenarios.
This report consists of three major parts. In the first part a valuation method is created to calculate the income for farmers for three possible scenarios. For one possible scenario the buffer zone is intact and able to provide pollination and biological control. For two possible scenarios the buffer zone is used for cultivation, one of which the ecosystem services are not replaced and one which the ecosystem services are replaced with honeybees and pesticides. The second step is an expert evaluation of the developed valuation method and the last part is a calculation example of the probable income for the different situations.
The results from the calculations show that the increased income generated from the ecosystem services cannot compensate for the additional income that cultivating the buffer zones would generate. But there are several uncertainties in the valuation method that affects the reliability of the calculations. It is also important to remember that buffer zones are useful for other purposes that have not been investigated in this report. Likewise have potential negative effects of pesticide use
on ecosystem not been studied. (Less)
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author
Nilsson, Rebecka LU
supervisor
organization
course
MVEM12 20141
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
language
Swedish
additional info
Populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning.

Rebecka Nilsson


Värdering av ekosystemtjänster i det Skånska jordbrukslandskapet

Ekosystemtjänster är viktiga i dagens samhälle eftersom de förser oss med viktiga resurser så som mat, bränsle och virke. Trots att ekosystemtjänsterna är viktiga glömmer vi ofta bort dess värde. På grund av detta är det viktigt att synliggöra detta värde och det kan bland annat göras genom att tilldela ekosystemtjänsten ett värde i pengar.

Skyddszonerna i jordbrukslandskapet har många funktioner som är till nytta för både samhället och lantbrukaren. Tidigare har lantbrukaren fått ekonomiskt stöd för att ha skyddszoner. Detta stöd har tagits bort och det är oklart om det kommer finnas något nytt stöd inom den närmast framtiden. Av denna anledning vill kommunen undersöka om det finns en möjlighet att motivera lantbrukaren att behålla skyddszonerna även om de inte får något stöd för dem. I detta arbete undersöks om två ekosystemtjänster, pollination och biologisk kontroll, kan bidra till större skörd och mindra utgifter och om detta kan kompensera för den inkomst som lantbrukaren hade fått om skyddszonerna hade brukats.

Beräkningarna grundar sig i tre olika situationer. I en av situationerna kantas åker av en skyddszon och ekosystemtjänsterna fungerar som de ska, detta ska representera den situation vi har idag. I de andra två situationerna brukas även skyddszonerna. I den ena av dessa situationer ersätts inte ekosystemtjänsterna utan beräkningen sker för den förlust av skörd som kan uppstå utan pollination och biologisk kontroll. För den andra av dessa situationer ersätts ekosystemtjänsterna med inhyrda bisamhälle och växtskyddsmedel, i denna beräkning inkluderas kostnaderna för att ersätta ekosystemtjänsterna.
Beräkningsexempel
Vid beräkning av inkomsten visar det sig att ökningen av skörd, som ekosystemtjänsterna bidrar med, inte kan kompensera för den ökning av skörd som det innebär att bruka skyddszonerna. Störst inkomst kan lantbrukaren få då skyddszonerna brukas och de ekosystemtjänster som finns naturligt i situation 1 ersätts med inhyrda bisamhälle och växtskyddsmedel. I detta beräkningsexempel kan inkomsten bli cirka 14 % mer för situation 3 jämfört med situation 1 (se figur 1). Det finns en del osäkerheter i de antagande som har gjorts för att möjliggöra beräkningarna, vilket medför att resultatet inte är helt säkert. Vidare bidrar skyddszonerna med andra viktiga ekosystemtjänster som inte har inkluderats i beräkningarna.

Handledare: Johanna Alkan Olsson
Examensarbete 30 hp i Miljövetenskap 2014
Biologiska institutionen, Lunds universitet
id
4499686
date added to LUP
2014-06-30 15:14:49
date last changed
2014-06-30 15:14:49
@misc{4499686,
  abstract     = {Ecosystem services are becoming increasingly important in today’s society, since they provide us with vital resources such as food and fuel. Even though this importance is evident, ecosystem services are often taken for granted. Because of this it is essential to shed light on the importance of ecosystem services. One way to do this is to valuate these services in monetary terms. 
The purpose of this report is to investigate if the value of two ecosystem services; pollination and biological control potentially is high enough to compensate for the loss of agricultural land that is needed to provide these services. This valuation is made from a farmer’s perspective since it is agricultural land, used as buffer zones adjacent to water, which provide the ecosystem services that are valued in this report. In this case a farmer’s perspective means that the farmer’s income has been calculated for three plausible scenarios. 
This report consists of three major parts. In the first part a valuation method is created to calculate the income for farmers for three possible scenarios. For one possible scenario the buffer zone is intact and able to provide pollination and biological control. For two possible scenarios the buffer zone is used for cultivation, one of which the ecosystem services are not replaced and one which the ecosystem services are replaced with honeybees and pesticides. The second step is an expert evaluation of the developed valuation method and the last part is a calculation example of the probable income for the different situations. 
The results from the calculations show that the increased income generated from the ecosystem services cannot compensate for the additional income that cultivating the buffer zones would generate. But there are several uncertainties in the valuation method that affects the reliability of the calculations. It is also important to remember that buffer zones are useful for other purposes that have not been investigated in this report. Likewise have potential negative effects of pesticide use 
on ecosystem not been studied.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Rebecka},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Värdering av ekosystemtjänster i det Skånska jordbrukslandskapet - Ur lantbrukatens perspektiv},
  year         = {2014},
}