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Biträde för barn i tvister om vårdnad, boende och umgänge - Ett sätt att stärka barnets rättigheter?

Hägg, Mimmi LU (2014) JURM02 20142
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Det finns olika möjligheter för barn att få komma till tals och det är domstolens skyldighet att se till att barnets åsikter kommer fram i målet. Barn kan för det första få komma till tals i en vårdnadsutredning eller innan snabbupplysningar sker av socialnämnden. För det andra kan barnet också komma till tals inför rätten.

I praktiken har det funnits brister i hur tillämpningen av rätten att komma till tals har sett ut. I olika studier har det framkommit att det i många domar saknas ett barnperspektiv med individualiserade bedömningar om barnets bästa. I en del domar verkar inte heller domstolen ha förhållit sig till barnets åsikter och det visar på att det saknas en transparens i många domar. Det finns inte heller en garanti att... (More)
Det finns olika möjligheter för barn att få komma till tals och det är domstolens skyldighet att se till att barnets åsikter kommer fram i målet. Barn kan för det första få komma till tals i en vårdnadsutredning eller innan snabbupplysningar sker av socialnämnden. För det andra kan barnet också komma till tals inför rätten.

I praktiken har det funnits brister i hur tillämpningen av rätten att komma till tals har sett ut. I olika studier har det framkommit att det i många domar saknas ett barnperspektiv med individualiserade bedömningar om barnets bästa. I en del domar verkar inte heller domstolen ha förhållit sig till barnets åsikter och det visar på att det saknas en transparens i många domar. Det finns inte heller en garanti att barnets åsikter kommer fram, då det inte är obligatoriskt med en vårdnadsutredning eller att samtala med barnet inför snabbupplysningarna.

Frågan om ett ombud har utretts tidigare men har avvisats av lagstiftaren. På Nya Zeeland har det funnits en möjlighet att utse ett ombud under lång tid och det har blivit det vanligaste sättet för barn att komma till tals. Sammanfattningsvis finns det både fördelar och nackdelar med att införa ett ombud för barn. En stor nackdel är att ett ombud skulle kosta mycket och kostnaden torde ligga på staten. Vidare skulle det innebära ytterligare en aktör i processen med liknande uppgifter, vilket kan förlänga och göra processen förvirrande. Samtidigt kan barnets ställning stärkas genom att barnets inflytande över tvisten förbättras. Barn kan också uppnå ett reellt deltagande och det är viktigt för att försäkra ett barnperspektiv i processen. (Less)
Abstract
Family law disputes concerning the custody, residence and contact of children have increased in recent years. Judgments made by the court in the resolution of disputes have significant short and long term consequences for the children involved. The child is not a party to the proceedings. Instead the child has a right to be heard and a right to have his or her best interests taken as a primary consideration. These rights originate from the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as well as the European Convention on the Exercise of the Children’s Rights and the Parental Code.

The purpose of this essay has been to study the child’s place in disputes concerning custody, residence and contact and if it would be suitable to pass a law that... (More)
Family law disputes concerning the custody, residence and contact of children have increased in recent years. Judgments made by the court in the resolution of disputes have significant short and long term consequences for the children involved. The child is not a party to the proceedings. Instead the child has a right to be heard and a right to have his or her best interests taken as a primary consideration. These rights originate from the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as well as the European Convention on the Exercise of the Children’s Rights and the Parental Code.

The purpose of this essay has been to study the child’s place in disputes concerning custody, residence and contact and if it would be suitable to pass a law that provides a lawyer for the child. The essay has discussed how that would affect the child’s position and to what extent the child would be heard in these disputes. Furthermore, the essay has also described how New Zealand’s legal system provides a lawyer for the child. The focus in the essay is on the child’s right to be heard and to have his or hers views given due weight.

The court has the obligation to investigate the child’s views. There are different ways for the child to be heard. The child can be heard through a representative from the social services, who is interviewing the child or the child can be heard in court.

The applicability of the right to be heard and to put the best interests of the child first, have had disadvantages. In several cases there has been a lack of focus on the child’s situation and individualised discussions on the best interests of the child. Furthermore, there has also been a lack of transparency in the judgments because the court has not explained how it has considered the child’s views. Finally, there is not an obligation to talk to the child in an investigation of custody, residence and contact. Therefore, there is no guarantee that the child can be heard in every case.

The question of implementing a lawyer for the child has been discussed in different inquiries, but the legislator has refused to pass a law. In New Zealand, a lawyer is available and it is the most common way for a child to be heard. There are both advantages and disadvantages with a lawyer for the child. A notable disadvantage is that the costs of providing a lawyer will be significant, and most likely be paid for by the government. Furthermore, there would also be many participants in the court with similar tasks. However, an advantage of having a lawyer for the child is that the child’s wishes may receive greater consideration by the court in the disputes resolution. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Hägg, Mimmi LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
A lawyer for the child in disputes concerning custody, residence and contact - A way to improve children's rights?
course
JURM02 20142
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
processrätt, familjerätt, barnrätt, biträde
language
Swedish
id
4914100
date added to LUP
2015-01-31 10:20:38
date last changed
2015-01-31 10:20:38
@misc{4914100,
  abstract     = {Family law disputes concerning the custody, residence and contact of children have increased in recent years. Judgments made by the court in the resolution of disputes have significant short and long term consequences for the children involved. The child is not a party to the proceedings. Instead the child has a right to be heard and a right to have his or her best interests taken as a primary consideration. These rights originate from the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as well as the European Convention on the Exercise of the Children’s Rights and the Parental Code.

The purpose of this essay has been to study the child’s place in disputes concerning custody, residence and contact and if it would be suitable to pass a law that provides a lawyer for the child. The essay has discussed how that would affect the child’s position and to what extent the child would be heard in these disputes. Furthermore, the essay has also described how New Zealand’s legal system provides a lawyer for the child. The focus in the essay is on the child’s right to be heard and to have his or hers views given due weight. 

The court has the obligation to investigate the child’s views. There are different ways for the child to be heard. The child can be heard through a representative from the social services, who is interviewing the child or the child can be heard in court. 

The applicability of the right to be heard and to put the best interests of the child first, have had disadvantages. In several cases there has been a lack of focus on the child’s situation and individualised discussions on the best interests of the child. Furthermore, there has also been a lack of transparency in the judgments because the court has not explained how it has considered the child’s views. Finally, there is not an obligation to talk to the child in an investigation of custody, residence and contact. Therefore, there is no guarantee that the child can be heard in every case. 

The question of implementing a lawyer for the child has been discussed in different inquiries, but the legislator has refused to pass a law. In New Zealand, a lawyer is available and it is the most common way for a child to be heard. There are both advantages and disadvantages with a lawyer for the child. A notable disadvantage is that the costs of providing a lawyer will be significant, and most likely be paid for by the government. Furthermore, there would also be many participants in the court with similar tasks. However, an advantage of having a lawyer for the child is that the child’s wishes may receive greater consideration by the court in the disputes resolution.},
  author       = {Hägg, Mimmi},
  keyword      = {processrätt,familjerätt,barnrätt,biträde},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Biträde för barn i tvister om vårdnad, boende och umgänge - Ett sätt att stärka barnets rättigheter?},
  year         = {2014},
}