Advanced

Komparativ studie om avtalsingående i polsk och svensk rätt

Handler, Gabrielle LU (2015) LAGM01 20151
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Polen är en Sveriges största exportmarknader, dit varor och tjänster för stora summor pengar exporteras varje år. Ändå är polsk rätt inte utredd i svensk litteratur och mycket sparsamt utredd i engelsk litteratur. Den här uppsatsens syfte är att jämföra svensk och polsk rätt avseende avtalsingående. Av redogörelsen framgår att de i många fall är mycket lika. Den polska avtalsrätten återfinns i civillagen från år 1964. Reglerna om avtalsingående finns huvudsakligen i artikel 66-72 civillagen. Tre former för avtalsingående regleras i civillagen: anbud och accept, avtalsförhandling samt auktion eller upphandling. I den svenska avtalslagen från år 1915 regleras i princip endast avtalsingående genom den så kallade anbud-acceptmodellen. Reglerna... (More)
Polen är en Sveriges största exportmarknader, dit varor och tjänster för stora summor pengar exporteras varje år. Ändå är polsk rätt inte utredd i svensk litteratur och mycket sparsamt utredd i engelsk litteratur. Den här uppsatsens syfte är att jämföra svensk och polsk rätt avseende avtalsingående. Av redogörelsen framgår att de i många fall är mycket lika. Den polska avtalsrätten återfinns i civillagen från år 1964. Reglerna om avtalsingående finns huvudsakligen i artikel 66-72 civillagen. Tre former för avtalsingående regleras i civillagen: anbud och accept, avtalsförhandling samt auktion eller upphandling. I den svenska avtalslagen från år 1915 regleras i princip endast avtalsingående genom den så kallade anbud-acceptmodellen. Reglerna om avtalsingående återfinns i kapitel 1, närmare bestämt 1-9§§. Övriga former för avtalsingående regleras utanför lagstiftningen, i praxis och doktrin. De former för avtalsingående som presenteras i respektive lagstiftning är dock inte exklusiva utan parterna kan välja valfritt förfarande för sitt avtalsslut.

Många intressanta slutsatser kan dras utifrån det redovisade materialet. Vad gäller anbudet och dess rättsliga karaktär uttrycker svensk rätt tydligt att ett anbud måste riktas till en bestämd adressat. Polsk rätt tillåter att anbud riktas till allmänheten, vilket skapar helt nya problem som inte återfinns i det svenska rättssystemet. Vad gäller acceptfristen uppstår vissa problem med definitionen av vad som utgör anbud som lämnats i den andra partens närvaro och som därför måste antas omedelbart. Detta kan föra med sig att acceptfristen för många anbud blir betydligt kortare i polsk rätt än i svensk.

En sen accept utgör ett nytt anbud. Den polska lagstiftaren har dock infört ett mer objektivt rekvisit än hennes svenska kollega avseende situationen då ett sådant anbud trots allt kan konstituera avtalsbundenhet. Orena accepter ses som avslag i förening med nytt anbud. Även i det här fallet har den polska lagstiftaren infört en undantagsbestämmelse som är mer praktiskt lämplig än den motsvarande svenska regleringen. Passivitet leder som huvudregel inte till avtalsslut, till skillnad från parternas konkludenta handlande som kan konstituera avtalsbundenhet. Även här förekommer undantag, dessa är dock i mycket låg grad överensstämmande mellan de jämförda rättsordningarna och därför svårare att ställa emot varandra. Den slutsats som möjligen kan dras är att de polska undantagen avseende passivitet kan verka mer begränsade, men egentligen blir tillämpliga oftare än de svenska. Avseende konkludent handlande innehåller den polska lagstiftningen, utöver den generella formfriheten, en specialreglering i art. 69 civillagen. Även om motsvarande reglering saknas i svensk rätt bör samma resultat kunna nås med hjälp av allmänna principer.

Avseende avtalsförhandling är den stora skillnaden att den polska regleringen om dessa finns i civillagen, medan den utelämnats ur avtalslagen. Utöver det är regleringarna mycket lika. En stor bidragande faktor är troligtvis globaliseringen samt att förhandlingar ofta har en internationell karaktär. Avseende culpa in contrahendo (det vill säga klandervärt beteende i samband med avtalsförhandlingar) är även denna reglering mycket lik, vilket är föga förvånande med tanke på rättsfigurens internationella karaktär. Även skyddet för företagshemligheter är mycket likt, bortsett från att den polske skadelidande har möjlighet att begära skadestånd eller utlämnande av vinst med anledning av det otillbörliga röjandet till skillnad från den svenska regleringen som endast erbjuder skadestånd. Polska företag har som regel en tämligen strikt pyramidhierarki där chefen verkligen är ledare för bolaget Vad gäller polacken som medkontrahent är hon entusiastisk och artig, dock kan lite tålamod krävas för att nå fram till en slutlig överenskommelse. När kontrakt väl är slutet respekteras den. Mycket beror på om motparten tillhör den äldre generationen som tränats och skaffat sig idébildning i det kommunistiska statsskicket, eller den nya generationen som har breddade vyer och en stor aptit att lyckas.

Sammanfattningsvis uppmuntras den svenska kontrahenten att ingå avtal på den exponentiellt växande polska marknaden, dock bör viss försiktighet iakttas framför allt avseende acceptfristens längd, anbudets karaktär av anbud och innehållets tydlighet. Författaren bedömer den polska lagtexten som över lag mer modern och lättillgänglig. Författaren uppfattar den ofta som mer objektiv, lättolkad och praktiskt tillämplig. Avtalslagen fungerar väl, sin ålder till trots, men skulle troligtvis må bra av dammas av och fräschas upp lite. (Less)
Abstract
Poland constitutes one of Sweden’s biggest export markets; goods and services worth significant sums of money are being exported to Poland each year. However, polish law remains unexplored in Swedish literature and very frugally explored in English literature. The aim of this essay is to compare Swedish and Polish law regarding conclusion of contracts. From the account, presented in this essay, the conclusion can be drawn that the two legal systems actually correspond in many instances. The polish law of contract is located in the civil code, which dates back to 1964. The provisions on the conclusion of a contract are mainly located in article 66-72 of the Civil Code. There are three main forms of conclusion of contracts presented in the... (More)
Poland constitutes one of Sweden’s biggest export markets; goods and services worth significant sums of money are being exported to Poland each year. However, polish law remains unexplored in Swedish literature and very frugally explored in English literature. The aim of this essay is to compare Swedish and Polish law regarding conclusion of contracts. From the account, presented in this essay, the conclusion can be drawn that the two legal systems actually correspond in many instances. The polish law of contract is located in the civil code, which dates back to 1964. The provisions on the conclusion of a contract are mainly located in article 66-72 of the Civil Code. There are three main forms of conclusion of contracts presented in the civil code: offer and acceptance, negotiations and auction or tender. The Swedish Contracts Act dates back to 1915, governing solely the conclusion of contracts using the so-called anbud-acceptmodellen (meaning a model for concluding a contract using an offer and an acceptance). Rules on the conclusion of contracts are located in chapter 1, in 1-9§§. Different ways to conclude a contract are not governed within the legislation, instead they are declared in established practise and doctrine. The parties are at liberty to choose a way of conclusion of contract to their liking, meaning that the forms of conclusion of contracts as presented in the Polish and Swedish legislation respectively are not exhaustive.

Many interesting conclusions can be drawn based on the presented material. Regarding the offer and its legal character, in Swedish law it’s clearly stated that it’s necessary to determine an addressee. Polish law allows an offer to be aimed at the general public, creating brand new problems that don’t exist at all in the Swedish legal system. Regarding the term of acceptance, certain issues also arise on determining whether an offer should be considered to have been given in the other part’s presence or not, and hence whether it has to be accepted immediately. This may result in many Polish offers coming with a much shorter term of acceptance than their Swedish counterparts.

A delayed acceptance constitutes a new offer. However the polish legislator introduced a more objective prerequisite than her Swedish colleague, regarding a situation when such an offer may constitute a binding agreement. An acceptance with stipulations is regarded as a rejection of the offer alongside a new offer. Yet again the Polish legislator adopted an exception that’s more practically adequate than the corresponding Swedish provision. Inaction doesn’t generally cause conclusion of a contract, unlike implied acceptance. There are however exceptions, as the contents of these laws vary widely between the two legal systems and hence make them hard to compare in a meaningful way. One conclusion may perhaps be drawn: though the Polish exceptions regarding inactivity seem more limited, they may in practice be more useful than the Swedish exceptions. Apart from the general freedom of form, there is a special exception in article 69 in the Civil Code regarding implied acceptance. Although Swedish law lacks a corresponding provision, the same result could probably occur in accordance with general legal principles.

Regarding negotiations, there’s one major difference: whereas there are Polish statutory regulations on the matter in the Civil Code, the Swedish legal system leaves the matter out of the Contracts Act and only settles it in the established practice and doctrine. Otherwise the two national regulations are strikingly similar. A big reason for this similarity is the impact of globalization and the international character of negotiations, since they are commonly used between parties of different nationalities. Also, the provisions regarding culpa in contrahendo are very similar, which is hardly surprising considering the international character of culpa in contrahendo. Futher, the protection of trade secrets is very much alike., however, allowing the injured Polish party the possibility to claim damages or for the other party to hand over any benefit caused by the disclosure whereas the Swedish provision only allows for damages. Polish companies typically have a rather strict hierarchy with the boss as the absolute head of the company. In the capacity of a business partner, the Pole is usually very enthusiastic and polite, however some patience may come in handy in order to reach a final agreement. Once a contract is signed, the Polish counterpart respects the agreement. Much depends on whether she represents the old generation of Poles who would get their ideas and overall attitude during the communist time, or the new generation, which represents wider horizons and a bigger appetite for success.

The overall conclusion stemming from this essay is to encourage Swedish contractors to enter into contracts on the exponentially growing Polish market., however, caution is required especially regarding the term of acceptance, the legal character of an offer and the clarity of the content. The author considers the polish statutory law to be more modern and accessible. The author finds it to be more objective, straightforward and practically applicable. The Contracts Act serves its purpose, despite its age, but it could use some dusting and some touch ups. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Handler, Gabrielle LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
A comparative study on the conclusion of contracts in Polish & Swedish law
course
LAGM01 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Avtalsrätt, Civilrätt, Förmögenhetsrätt, Komparativ rätt, Comparative law, Polen, Poland, Avtalsingående
language
Swedish
id
5431993
date added to LUP
2015-06-22 13:11:11
date last changed
2015-06-22 13:11:11
@misc{5431993,
  abstract     = {Poland constitutes one of Sweden’s biggest export markets; goods and services worth significant sums of money are being exported to Poland each year. However, polish law remains unexplored in Swedish literature and very frugally explored in English literature. The aim of this essay is to compare Swedish and Polish law regarding conclusion of contracts. From the account, presented in this essay, the conclusion can be drawn that the two legal systems actually correspond in many instances. The polish law of contract is located in the civil code, which dates back to 1964. The provisions on the conclusion of a contract are mainly located in article 66-72 of the Civil Code. There are three main forms of conclusion of contracts presented in the civil code: offer and acceptance, negotiations and auction or tender. The Swedish Contracts Act dates back to 1915, governing solely the conclusion of contracts using the so-called anbud-acceptmodellen (meaning a model for concluding a contract using an offer and an acceptance). Rules on the conclusion of contracts are located in chapter 1, in 1-9§§. Different ways to conclude a contract are not governed within the legislation, instead they are declared in established practise and doctrine. The parties are at liberty to choose a way of conclusion of contract to their liking, meaning that the forms of conclusion of contracts as presented in the Polish and Swedish legislation respectively are not exhaustive. 

Many interesting conclusions can be drawn based on the presented material. Regarding the offer and its legal character, in Swedish law it’s clearly stated that it’s necessary to determine an addressee. Polish law allows an offer to be aimed at the general public, creating brand new problems that don’t exist at all in the Swedish legal system. Regarding the term of acceptance, certain issues also arise on determining whether an offer should be considered to have been given in the other part’s presence or not, and hence whether it has to be accepted immediately. This may result in many Polish offers coming with a much shorter term of acceptance than their Swedish counterparts. 

A delayed acceptance constitutes a new offer. However the polish legislator introduced a more objective prerequisite than her Swedish colleague, regarding a situation when such an offer may constitute a binding agreement. An acceptance with stipulations is regarded as a rejection of the offer alongside a new offer. Yet again the Polish legislator adopted an exception that’s more practically adequate than the corresponding Swedish provision. Inaction doesn’t generally cause conclusion of a contract, unlike implied acceptance. There are however exceptions, as the contents of these laws vary widely between the two legal systems and hence make them hard to compare in a meaningful way. One conclusion may perhaps be drawn: though the Polish exceptions regarding inactivity seem more limited, they may in practice be more useful than the Swedish exceptions. Apart from the general freedom of form, there is a special exception in article 69 in the Civil Code regarding implied acceptance. Although Swedish law lacks a corresponding provision, the same result could probably occur in accordance with general legal principles. 

Regarding negotiations, there’s one major difference: whereas there are Polish statutory regulations on the matter in the Civil Code, the Swedish legal system leaves the matter out of the Contracts Act and only settles it in the established practice and doctrine. Otherwise the two national regulations are strikingly similar. A big reason for this similarity is the impact of globalization and the international character of negotiations, since they are commonly used between parties of different nationalities. Also, the provisions regarding culpa in contrahendo are very similar, which is hardly surprising considering the international character of culpa in contrahendo. Futher, the protection of trade secrets is very much alike., however, allowing the injured Polish party the possibility to claim damages or for the other party to hand over any benefit caused by the disclosure whereas the Swedish provision only allows for damages. Polish companies typically have a rather strict hierarchy with the boss as the absolute head of the company. In the capacity of a business partner, the Pole is usually very enthusiastic and polite, however some patience may come in handy in order to reach a final agreement. Once a contract is signed, the Polish counterpart respects the agreement. Much depends on whether she represents the old generation of Poles who would get their ideas and overall attitude during the communist time, or the new generation, which represents wider horizons and a bigger appetite for success. 

The overall conclusion stemming from this essay is to encourage Swedish contractors to enter into contracts on the exponentially growing Polish market., however, caution is required especially regarding the term of acceptance, the legal character of an offer and the clarity of the content. The author considers the polish statutory law to be more modern and accessible. The author finds it to be more objective, straightforward and practically applicable. The Contracts Act serves its purpose, despite its age, but it could use some dusting and some touch ups.},
  author       = {Handler, Gabrielle},
  keyword      = {Avtalsrätt,Civilrätt,Förmögenhetsrätt,Komparativ rätt,Comparative law,Polen,Poland,Avtalsingående},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Komparativ studie om avtalsingående i polsk och svensk rätt},
  year         = {2015},
}