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Elektroniska underskrifter i en digital agenda

Brauner, Caroline LU (2015) LAGM01 20151
Department of Law
Abstract
The digital development in society and the new eIDAS regulation which is replacing the current eSignature directive and the Swedish law on electronic signatures through which the directive is implemented, raises the interest for electronic signatures and the possibilities these provide. In this context this essay aims to analyse the functions of electronic signatures and which impact the new regulation will have on the Swedish legal system. Furthermore, the legal effect of electronic signatures will be examined and to which extent an electronic signature can fulfill the typical functions of physical signatures. Electronic communication and the possibility of concluding contracts electronically are essential conditions for electronic... (More)
The digital development in society and the new eIDAS regulation which is replacing the current eSignature directive and the Swedish law on electronic signatures through which the directive is implemented, raises the interest for electronic signatures and the possibilities these provide. In this context this essay aims to analyse the functions of electronic signatures and which impact the new regulation will have on the Swedish legal system. Furthermore, the legal effect of electronic signatures will be examined and to which extent an electronic signature can fulfill the typical functions of physical signatures. Electronic communication and the possibility of concluding contracts electronically are essential conditions for electronic signatures. Therefore these matters and some related contractual problems will be touched upon. Finally, I will discuss effects of electronical signatures from the perspective of law and economics. The conclusions are the following: Electronic signatures are based on assymetric encryption in the Public Key Infrastructure system (PKI). As regards legal effect, the EIDAS regulation mainly prescribes mutual recognition of qualified electronic signatures under certain provisions, and, further, that a qualified electronic signature may not be denied admissibility as evidence in legal proceedings under certain circumstances. It is also stipulated that national law may not impose higher requirements on electronic signatures than that they should be qualified. As is the case with the current legislation and EU directive, the regulation does not affect national or union law related to the conclusion and validity of contracts or other legal or procedural obligations relating to form. Since Swedish law does not contain formal requirements regarding conclusion of contract to any larger extent, and due to the Swedish principle of free sifting of evidence, the impact of the regulation from a Swedish perspective will be insignificant in this respect. However, the regulation also introduces new rules on mutual recognition of electronic identification and, in addition to electronic signatures, also other trusted services. Further, the legal position has been strengthened due to the direct effect of the regulation, but has also been clarified compared to the eSignature directive, increasing the legal certainty. Within contract law, electronic signatures may be applied provided that no formal requirement, such as a requirement of hand-written signature, exist. In such case, the general position is that the legislation in question must explicitly allow the use of electronic signatures in order for such to be valid as signatures. Electronic signatures can fulfill the typical functions of the traditional signatures, such as the function of showing will, a warning function, identification function, authenticity function and function as evidence. The use of electronic communication may sometimes give rise to contract law related problems which can be solved through different approaches which is essential since it important not to slow down the digital development of society. From a law end economics point of view, the effects of electronic signatures are mainly reduced transaction costs and increased information. (Less)
Popular Abstract (Swedish)
I takt med den digitala utvecklingen i samhället samt den nya eIDAS-förordningen som ersätter det tidigare signaturdirektivet och signaturlagen genom vilket direktivet implementerades, väcks intresset för elektroniska underskrifter och de möjligheter dessa erbjuder. Mot en sådan bakgrund syftar denna uppsats till att utreda hur elektroniska underskrifter fungerar och vad den nya förordningen innebär för svensk rätt. Vidare utreds hur långt en elektronisk underskrifts rättsverkan sträcker sig och hur en elektronisk underskrift kan fylla den traditionella fysiska underskriftens typiska funktioner. Möjligheten att sluta avtal på elektronisk väg och elektronisk kommunikation utgör viktiga förutsättningar för elektroniska underskrifter som till... (More)
I takt med den digitala utvecklingen i samhället samt den nya eIDAS-förordningen som ersätter det tidigare signaturdirektivet och signaturlagen genom vilket direktivet implementerades, väcks intresset för elektroniska underskrifter och de möjligheter dessa erbjuder. Mot en sådan bakgrund syftar denna uppsats till att utreda hur elektroniska underskrifter fungerar och vad den nya förordningen innebär för svensk rätt. Vidare utreds hur långt en elektronisk underskrifts rättsverkan sträcker sig och hur en elektronisk underskrift kan fylla den traditionella fysiska underskriftens typiska funktioner. Möjligheten att sluta avtal på elektronisk väg och elektronisk kommunikation utgör viktiga förutsättningar för elektroniska underskrifter som till viss del behandlas och viss avtalsrättslig problematik som kan uppstå i sammanhanget. Avslutningsvis redogörs för rättsekonomiska effekter som elektroniska underskrifter kan innebära. Slutsatserna är följande: Signeringen bygger på asymmetrisk kryptering i infrastrukturen för det öppna nyckelsystemet, PKI. EIDAS-förordningens reglering av elektroniska underskrifters rättsverkan och bevisverkan innebär i huvudsak krav på ömsesidigt erkännande av kvalificerade elektroniska underskrifter, att det i nationell rätt inte får ställas högre krav på elektroniska underskrifter än att de ska vara kvalificerade och att de under vissa förutsättningar inte får förvägras bevisverkan. Liksom tidigare regleras inte elektroniska underskrifters rättsverkan när det i nationell rätt föreligger formkrav. Då den svenska rättsordningen har få formkrav och tillämpar fri bevisvärderings- och bevisprövningsprinciper förblir effekten mindre avgörande i detta hänseende. Dock innebär förordningen andra nyheter i form av bestämmelser om ömsesidigt erkännande av e-legitimationer under vissa förutsättningar och utöver elektroniska underskrifter även andra s.k. betrodda tjänster. I övrigt har regleringen förstärkts genom förordningens direkta effekt samt förtydligats jämfört med signaturdirektivet och därmed ökat rättssäkerheten. Inom avtalsrätten kan elektroniska underskrifter användas förutsatt att inget formkrav såsom på egenhändig underskrift föreligger då den allmänna uppfattningen är att det då uttryckligen måste tillåtas att elektroniska underskrifter kan uppfylla kravet. Elektroniska underskrifter kan vidare fylla den traditionella underskriftens typiska viljefunktion, varningsfunktion, identifieringsfunktion, äkthetsfunktion och bevisfunktion. Elektronisk kommunikation kan ibland ge upphov till avtalsrättslig problematik som kan lösas på olika sätt vilket är viktigt för att inte bromsa den digitala utvecklingen i samhället. De rättsekonomiska effekterna av elektroniska underskrifter är framförallt sänkta transaktionskostnader och motverkande av bristande information bland konsumenter och näringsidkare. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Brauner, Caroline LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Electronic signatures in a digital agenda
course
LAGM01 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
E-legitimation, Elektronisk identifiering., Digital signatur, Elektronisk signatur, Elektronisk underskrift, Avtalsrätt, EU-rätt, Förmögenhetsrätt
language
Swedish
id
5432491
date added to LUP
2015-06-08 14:45:57
date last changed
2015-06-08 14:45:57
@misc{5432491,
  abstract     = {The digital development in society and the new eIDAS regulation which is replacing the current eSignature directive and the Swedish law on electronic signatures through which the directive is implemented, raises the interest for electronic signatures and the possibilities these provide. In this context this essay aims to analyse the functions of electronic signatures and which impact the new regulation will have on the Swedish legal system. Furthermore, the legal effect of electronic signatures will be examined and to which extent an electronic signature can fulfill the typical functions of physical signatures. Electronic communication and the possibility of concluding contracts electronically are essential conditions for electronic signatures. Therefore these matters and some related contractual problems will be touched upon. Finally, I will discuss effects of electronical signatures from the perspective of law and economics. The conclusions are the following: Electronic signatures are based on assymetric encryption in the Public Key Infrastructure system (PKI). As regards legal effect, the EIDAS regulation mainly prescribes mutual recognition of qualified electronic signatures under certain provisions, and, further, that a qualified electronic signature may not be denied admissibility as evidence in legal proceedings under certain circumstances. It is also stipulated that national law may not impose higher requirements on electronic signatures than that they should be qualified. As is the case with the current legislation and EU directive, the regulation does not affect national or union law related to the conclusion and validity of contracts or other legal or procedural obligations relating to form. Since Swedish law does not contain formal requirements regarding conclusion of contract to any larger extent, and due to the Swedish principle of free sifting of evidence, the impact of the regulation from a Swedish perspective will be insignificant in this respect. However, the regulation also introduces new rules on mutual recognition of electronic identification and, in addition to electronic signatures, also other trusted services. Further, the legal position has been strengthened due to the direct effect of the regulation, but has also been clarified compared to the eSignature directive, increasing the legal certainty. Within contract law, electronic signatures may be applied provided that no formal requirement, such as a requirement of hand-written signature, exist. In such case, the general position is that the legislation in question must explicitly allow the use of electronic signatures in order for such to be valid as signatures. Electronic signatures can fulfill the typical functions of the traditional signatures, such as the function of showing will, a warning function, identification function, authenticity function and function as evidence. The use of electronic communication may sometimes give rise to contract law related problems which can be solved through different approaches which is essential since it important not to slow down the digital development of society. From a law end economics point of view, the effects of electronic signatures are mainly reduced transaction costs and increased information.},
  author       = {Brauner, Caroline},
  keyword      = {E-legitimation,Elektronisk identifiering.,Digital signatur,Elektronisk signatur,Elektronisk underskrift,Avtalsrätt,EU-rätt,Förmögenhetsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Elektroniska underskrifter i en digital agenda},
  year         = {2015},
}