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”Kringresanderegistret” och skyddslagstiftningen i svensk rätt vid polisens upprättande av etniska register

Rasmussen Pessah, Sofia LU (2015) JURM02 20151
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Förbud mot diskriminering är en välförankrad princip i såväl folkrätten som i svensk grundlag. Principen har konstaterats utgöra en del av grunden för en demokratisk rättsstat. Svensk diskrimineringsskyddslagstiftning begränsar emellertid området för dess tillämpning på ett något okonventionellt sätt. Diskrimineringslagen reglerar således enbart offentligt anställdas handlingar i den mån att de interagerar med allmänheten. I situationer där offentligt anställda handlar i andra sammanhang, exempelvis när poliser registrerar personuppgifter i brottsutredningar, faller dessa handlingar utanför lagens tillämpningsområde.

När det 2013 avslöjades att Polismyndigheten i Skåne upprättat och använt sig av ett register som påstods vara en... (More)
Förbud mot diskriminering är en välförankrad princip i såväl folkrätten som i svensk grundlag. Principen har konstaterats utgöra en del av grunden för en demokratisk rättsstat. Svensk diskrimineringsskyddslagstiftning begränsar emellertid området för dess tillämpning på ett något okonventionellt sätt. Diskrimineringslagen reglerar således enbart offentligt anställdas handlingar i den mån att de interagerar med allmänheten. I situationer där offentligt anställda handlar i andra sammanhang, exempelvis när poliser registrerar personuppgifter i brottsutredningar, faller dessa handlingar utanför lagens tillämpningsområde.

När det 2013 avslöjades att Polismyndigheten i Skåne upprättat och använt sig av ett register som påstods vara en kartläggning över romer (det så kallade ”Kringresanderegistret”) föll därför inte Polismyndighetens aktivitet inom ramen för diskrimineringslagen. Huruvida registret otillbörligen hade använt sig av etnicitet bedömdes istället utifrån 2 kap. 10 § PDL; en paragraf som avsevärt skiljer sig från diskrimineringslagen. Det finns bland annat stora skillnader i synen på när någon kan diskrimineras utifrån etnicitet, samt vilka handlingar som anses otillbörligen behandla etnicitet.

Denna uppsats undersöker vilket diskrimineringsskydd som etniska minoriteter åtnjuter i Sverige i fall där de figurerar i av polisen upprättade register. Uppsatsen fokuserar på 2 kap. 10 § PDL och dess kompatibilitet med diskrimineringslagen, regeringsformen, Europakonventionen och internationella konventioner. I uppsatsen granskas möjligheten att etnisk profilering används som metod inom svensk polis. Uppsatsen argumenterar för att metodens möjliga användande, alternativt möjliga framtida användande tillsammans med problemets allvarliga karaktär belyser behovet av en förbättrad svensk skyddslagstiftning. Uppsatsen innehåller vidare en fallstudie av myndighetsbesluten som följde efter upptäckten av Kringresanderegistret.

I uppsatsen förs tesen att en tillämpning av 2 kap. 10 § PDL på situationer av möjlig diskriminering inte garanterar att diskrimineringsförbuden i Europakonventionen och regeringsformen efterlevs. I teorin åtnjuter individer ett skydd mot att etniskt diskrimineras vid polisregistreringar genom de sistnämnda lagarna. I praktiken däremot, vilket bland annat visats i fråga om Kringresanderegistret, garanteras inte dessa rättigheter i sådana fall där enbart polisdatalagen tillämpas.

Svenska myndigheter har i moderna historia kartlagt romer och upprättat register utifrån stereotypiska föreställningar om individer ur denna minoritetsgrupp. I uppsatsen drivs tesen att sådant myndighetsutövande inte kan garanteras höra till det förflutna om 2 kap. 10 § PDL tillämpas som enda skyddslagstiftningen mot diskriminering vid polisers arbete via register. (Less)
Abstract
The prohibition of discrimination is a well-established principle in Swedish constitutional and international law, and is furthermore considered a foundation for the rule of law and a democratic society. However, the Swedish discrimination law has an unconventional scope of application. The said law only applies to actions by civil servants when they are interacting with the public. Other activities fall outside the scope of the law, such as when the police register personal data during criminal investigations.

When, in 2013, it was discovered that the police in Skåne had compiled a register that seemed to blatantly map Swedish Roma (the so-called register “Travellers”) the activity by the police did not fall within the ambit of the... (More)
The prohibition of discrimination is a well-established principle in Swedish constitutional and international law, and is furthermore considered a foundation for the rule of law and a democratic society. However, the Swedish discrimination law has an unconventional scope of application. The said law only applies to actions by civil servants when they are interacting with the public. Other activities fall outside the scope of the law, such as when the police register personal data during criminal investigations.

When, in 2013, it was discovered that the police in Skåne had compiled a register that seemed to blatantly map Swedish Roma (the so-called register “Travellers”) the activity by the police did not fall within the ambit of the discrimination law. The question of whether the register had made illicit use of ethnicity was instead evaluated within the scope of Chapter 2 § 10 Police Data Act; a paragraph which differs greatly from the discrimination law. For example, the laws do not overlap concerning whether someone can be considered discriminated against as a result of ethnicity, or which actions that are considered to be an illicit usage of ethnicity.

This essay evaluates what protection against discrimination is available to ethnic minorities in Sweden in instances where the police have registered personal data. The essay is focused on Chapter 2 § 10 PDA, and its compatibility with the discrimination law, the Instrument of Government, the European Convention on Human Rights, and international conventions. In this essay, the potential usage of ethnic profiling as a method by the Swedish police is also examined. The essay asserts that the potential use of such a method together with the severity of such practices emphasises the need for an improved protective law in Sweden. Furthermore, the essay includes a case study of the government authorities’ decisions that followed after the discovery of the Travellers register.

The essay concludes that Chapter 2 § 10 PDA is not in itself sufficient to ensure full compliance with the prohibition of discrimination contained in the ECHR and the Instrument of Government. In theory, individuals do have a protection against ethnic discrimination in police registers through the latter. However, in practice, these rights cannot be guaranteed when only the Police Data Act is being applied.

Swedish government authorities have in modern history mapped Roma and created registers based on stereotypical assumptions of individuals from this minority group. This essay argues that such governmental behaviour cannot be guaranteed to be a thing of the past in instances when the Police Data Act is applied as the only protective law against discrimination during police work through registers. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Rasmussen Pessah, Sofia LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The register "Travelers" and the protection in Swedish law when police compile ethnic registers
course
JURM02 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
folkrätt, mänskliga rättigheter, etnisk profilering, register, Europakonventionen, diskriminering, Kringresanderegistret
language
Swedish
id
5432498
date added to LUP
2015-06-22 13:12:00
date last changed
2015-06-22 13:12:00
@misc{5432498,
  abstract     = {The prohibition of discrimination is a well-established principle in Swedish constitutional and international law, and is furthermore considered a foundation for the rule of law and a democratic society. However, the Swedish discrimination law has an unconventional scope of application. The said law only applies to actions by civil servants when they are interacting with the public. Other activities fall outside the scope of the law, such as when the police register personal data during criminal investigations. 

When, in 2013, it was discovered that the police in Skåne had compiled a register that seemed to blatantly map Swedish Roma (the so-called register “Travellers”) the activity by the police did not fall within the ambit of the discrimination law. The question of whether the register had made illicit use of ethnicity was instead evaluated within the scope of Chapter 2 § 10 Police Data Act; a paragraph which differs greatly from the discrimination law. For example, the laws do not overlap concerning whether someone can be considered discriminated against as a result of ethnicity, or which actions that are considered to be an illicit usage of ethnicity. 

This essay evaluates what protection against discrimination is available to ethnic minorities in Sweden in instances where the police have registered personal data. The essay is focused on Chapter 2 § 10 PDA, and its compatibility with the discrimination law, the Instrument of Government, the European Convention on Human Rights, and international conventions. In this essay, the potential usage of ethnic profiling as a method by the Swedish police is also examined. The essay asserts that the potential use of such a method together with the severity of such practices emphasises the need for an improved protective law in Sweden. Furthermore, the essay includes a case study of the government authorities’ decisions that followed after the discovery of the Travellers register. 

The essay concludes that Chapter 2 § 10 PDA is not in itself sufficient to ensure full compliance with the prohibition of discrimination contained in the ECHR and the Instrument of Government. In theory, individuals do have a protection against ethnic discrimination in police registers through the latter. However, in practice, these rights cannot be guaranteed when only the Police Data Act is being applied. 

Swedish government authorities have in modern history mapped Roma and created registers based on stereotypical assumptions of individuals from this minority group. This essay argues that such governmental behaviour cannot be guaranteed to be a thing of the past in instances when the Police Data Act is applied as the only protective law against discrimination during police work through registers.},
  author       = {Rasmussen Pessah, Sofia},
  keyword      = {folkrätt,mänskliga rättigheter,etnisk profilering,register,Europakonventionen,diskriminering,Kringresanderegistret},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {”Kringresanderegistret” och skyddslagstiftningen i svensk rätt vid polisens upprättande av etniska register},
  year         = {2015},
}