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Avvägningen mellan våldsutsatta barns behov av kontinuitet och återförening vid vårdnadsöverflyttningar

Rrecaj, Aulona LU (2015) LAGM01 20151
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Principen om barnets bästa framhålls i både svensk nationell rätt och i internationella konventioner. Barnets bästa ska vara vägledande i alla beslut som rör barnet, så som barnets boende, umgänge och vårdnad. Vad som är barnets bästa är inte lagstadgat, rangordnat eller uttömt i varken svensk nationell rätt eller i internationell rätt utan barnets bästa anses skilja sig beroende på tid och plats, vilket föranleder en individuell prövning för domstolen i varje enskilt fall. Grundläggande principer, som barnets rätt till omsorg och familj, anses vara en av byggstenarna för att principen om barnets bästa ska kunna tillgodoses. Alla barn har rätt till en vuxen som värnar om barnet och dess fysiska och psykiska behov samt förser barnet med... (More)
Principen om barnets bästa framhålls i både svensk nationell rätt och i internationella konventioner. Barnets bästa ska vara vägledande i alla beslut som rör barnet, så som barnets boende, umgänge och vårdnad. Vad som är barnets bästa är inte lagstadgat, rangordnat eller uttömt i varken svensk nationell rätt eller i internationell rätt utan barnets bästa anses skilja sig beroende på tid och plats, vilket föranleder en individuell prövning för domstolen i varje enskilt fall. Grundläggande principer, som barnets rätt till omsorg och familj, anses vara en av byggstenarna för att principen om barnets bästa ska kunna tillgodoses. Alla barn har rätt till en vuxen som värnar om barnet och dess fysiska och psykiska behov samt förser barnet med mat, rent vatten, kläder och hälsovård. Rätten för barnet till omsorg innefattar också trygghet, aktning som person samt respekt för dess människovärde. Barnets rätt till familj anses vara skyddsvärt, både på nationell nivå som på internationell nivå. Varje barn ska ha rätt till en god relation med sina föräldrar eller andra vuxna som är betydelsefulla i barnets liv. Ett avbrott i relationen mellan barnet och betydelsefulla personer anses skada barnet men kan i vissa fall vara nödvändigt, med hänsyn till vad som är barnets bästa. Avbrottet kan ske genom ett avskiljande mellan barnet och dess föräldrar i form av ett omhändertagande vid brister i omsorgen, våld mot barnet eller våld i hemmet. Både svensk rätt och barnkonventionen framhåller att barn ska skyddas från alla former av övergrepp, så som våld eller hot om våld, genom statens ingripande. Vid ingripandet ska barnet placeras i ett familjehem där familjehemsföräldrarna, i uppdrag av statens sociala myndigheter, ska överta rollen som barnets omvårdare.

Ett barn som har omhändertagits och familjehemsplacerats med anledning av missförhållanden i hemmet kan efter en längre tid uppleva att familjehemmet är dess “riktiga” hem. Barnet kan således ha etablerat ett behov av kontinuitet, trygghet och stabilitet i familjehemmet. Principen om kontinuitet går hand i hand med principen om barnets bästa och innebär att barnet behöver förutsebarhet och igenkänning i sitt liv. I både svensk nationell rättspraxis och internationell rättspraxis beskrivs kontinuitetsprincipen som ytterligare en grundläggande rättighet för barnet som måste tillgodoses. Frågan om barnets kontinuitet och stabilitet är aktuell både när barnet bor hemma hos sina föräldrar och när barnet, p.g.a. missförhållanden i hemmet, har familjehemsplacerats. I båda fallen ska barnets förankring till vuxna som tar hand om barnet vara vägledande och hänsyn ska tas till barnets anpassning till miljön. Barn som har omhändertagits p.g.a. missförhållanden i hemmet har också rätt att upprätthålla en god kontakt med sina föräldrar. Barnets kontakt med föräldrarna syftar till att underlätta en “återslussning” av barnet till dess ursprungshem när vården ska upphöra. Målsättningen är nämligen att barnet, förr eller senare, ska återförenas med sin familj. När en återförening med barnets föräldrar inte är möjlig, eller helt och hållet orealistisk, kan frågan om vårdnadsöverflyttning bli aktuellt. I samband med detta förlorar föräldrarna all bestämmanderätt över sitt barn.

Avvägningen mellan barnets behov av kontinuitet i ett familjehem, där barnet vistats i under en längre tid, och återföreningen mellan barnet och dess föräldrar kan leda till problematik eftersom avgränsningen inte är helt klar. I detta arbete redovisas barnets grundläggande rättigheter, omhändertagandeprocessen samt avvägningen mellan barnets kontinuitet och återförening vid vårdnadsöverflyttningar. (Less)
Abstract
The principle of “the best interests of the child” is emphasized in both Swedish national law and international conventions, such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the European Convention on Human Rights. The principle shall to be used as guidance in all decisions relating to a child and can involve determination regarding the child's residence, visitation regulation or custody matters. There is not a provision expressing what “the best interest of the child” actually is and neither is there a ranking of circumstances of what should be considered when determining what the best interest is. The best interest of the child is considered to be different in each individual case and depends on the time and the place of the... (More)
The principle of “the best interests of the child” is emphasized in both Swedish national law and international conventions, such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the European Convention on Human Rights. The principle shall to be used as guidance in all decisions relating to a child and can involve determination regarding the child's residence, visitation regulation or custody matters. There is not a provision expressing what “the best interest of the child” actually is and neither is there a ranking of circumstances of what should be considered when determining what the best interest is. The best interest of the child is considered to be different in each individual case and depends on the time and the place of the ruling. Principles, as the child’s right to care and the right to a family, are, however, considered to be in concordance with the best interest of the child. All children are entitled to an adult that can provide care for the child’s physical and psychological needs. The child also has the right to safety and respect for its human dignity. The child’s right to a family is protected on both national level and on international level. Every child shall have the right to a relationship with their parents or other adults that have an important role in the child’s life. An immediate interruption in the relationship is considered harmful for the child. However, in some cases a disruption can be necessary due to the principle of the best interest of the child, such as when there are forms of deficiencies in the care, violence against the child or domestic violence in the child’s home environment. Both Swedish national law and the CRC emphasizes that the child shall be protected from all forms of abuse and violence, or threats of such, by the state’s intervention. The child shall therefore be placed in foster care, where the foster parents by order of the state’s social agencies shall take over the role of the caregiver for the child.

A child, which has lived in a foster home for a long period of time, can experience an emotional connection to the foster parents and feel that the foster home is its ‘real’ home. Thus, the child may establish a need of continuity, safety and stability (known as “the principle of continuity”). This principle is closely linked to the principle of the best interest of the child and implies that the child needs a sense of predictability and reconnaissance in its life. Furthermore, both Swedish national law and international law describe the principle of continuity as a fundamental right for the child. The child’s continuity lays in the case where the child has its ‘original’ home with its parents and in the case where the child has lived in a foster home. In both cases the child has a right to caring adults and the court shall take account the child's adaptation to the new environment.

Children whom have been taken into care due to different forms of abuse have the right to maintain a good contact with their parents. The purpose of the child's contact with the parents is aimed to, sooner or later, facilitate in a reunion between the child and its parents. If a reuion of such forms is not possible, or completely unrealistic, a custody transfer can be necessary. This means that the parents lose all authority over their child.

The balance between the child's need for continuity in a foster home, where the child has lived for a long time, and the reunion between the child and its parents can lead to difficulties when it comes to determining what the best interest of the child is. This paper is aimed to give the reader knowledge about the child's fundamental rights, the resettlement process as well as the balance between the child's continuity and reunion with its parents in custody transfers. (Less)
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author
Rrecaj, Aulona LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The consideration between abused children's need of continuity and reunion with its parents in custody transfers
course
LAGM01 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
familjerätt, förvaltningsrätt, socialrätt, kontinuitet, stabilitet, återförening, vårdnadsöverflyttning, family law, administrative law, social and welfare law, continuity, stability, reunion, costody transfers
language
Swedish
id
5435066
date added to LUP
2015-06-11 20:30:13
date last changed
2015-06-11 20:30:13
@misc{5435066,
  abstract     = {The principle of “the best interests of the child” is emphasized in both Swedish national law and international conventions, such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the European Convention on Human Rights. The principle shall to be used as guidance in all decisions relating to a child and can involve determination regarding the child's residence, visitation regulation or custody matters. There is not a provision expressing what “the best interest of the child” actually is and neither is there a ranking of circumstances of what should be considered when determining what the best interest is. The best interest of the child is considered to be different in each individual case and depends on the time and the place of the ruling. Principles, as the child’s right to care and the right to a family, are, however, considered to be in concordance with the best interest of the child. All children are entitled to an adult that can provide care for the child’s physical and psychological needs. The child also has the right to safety and respect for its human dignity. The child’s right to a family is protected on both national level and on international level. Every child shall have the right to a relationship with their parents or other adults that have an important role in the child’s life. An immediate interruption in the relationship is considered harmful for the child. However, in some cases a disruption can be necessary due to the principle of the best interest of the child, such as when there are forms of deficiencies in the care, violence against the child or domestic violence in the child’s home environment. Both Swedish national law and the CRC emphasizes that the child shall be protected from all forms of abuse and violence, or threats of such, by the state’s intervention. The child shall therefore be placed in foster care, where the foster parents by order of the state’s social agencies shall take over the role of the caregiver for the child.

A child, which has lived in a foster home for a long period of time, can experience an emotional connection to the foster parents and feel that the foster home is its ‘real’ home. Thus, the child may establish a need of continuity, safety and stability (known as “the principle of continuity”). This principle is closely linked to the principle of the best interest of the child and implies that the child needs a sense of predictability and reconnaissance in its life. Furthermore, both Swedish national law and international law describe the principle of continuity as a fundamental right for the child. The child’s continuity lays in the case where the child has its ‘original’ home with its parents and in the case where the child has lived in a foster home. In both cases the child has a right to caring adults and the court shall take account the child's adaptation to the new environment.

Children whom have been taken into care due to different forms of abuse have the right to maintain a good contact with their parents. The purpose of the child's contact with the parents is aimed to, sooner or later, facilitate in a reunion between the child and its parents. If a reuion of such forms is not possible, or completely unrealistic, a custody transfer can be necessary. This means that the parents lose all authority over their child. 

The balance between the child's need for continuity in a foster home, where the child has lived for a long time, and the reunion between the child and its parents can lead to difficulties when it comes to determining what the best interest of the child is. This paper is aimed to give the reader knowledge about the child's fundamental rights, the resettlement process as well as the balance between the child's continuity and reunion with its parents in custody transfers.},
  author       = {Rrecaj, Aulona},
  keyword      = {familjerätt,förvaltningsrätt,socialrätt,kontinuitet,stabilitet,återförening,vårdnadsöverflyttning,family law,administrative law,social and welfare law,continuity,stability,reunion,costody transfers},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Avvägningen mellan våldsutsatta barns behov av kontinuitet och återförening vid vårdnadsöverflyttningar},
  year         = {2015},
}