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Bästa tillgängliga teknik (BAT) -Hur har BAT förändrats i och med industriutsläppsdirektivet?

Svensson, Therese LU (2014) JUR092 20151
Department of Law
Abstract
This thesis regards the changes to Best Available Techniques, BAT, which the implementation of the Industrial Emissions Directive, IED, has brought on. The purpose is to discuss how and in which ways BAT has developed in Sweden as a result of IED.

BAT belongs to the general rules of consideration which makes it central in all forms of professional operation. In context the principal of BAT is applicable with regards to the heaviest industries in Sweden and the entire EU.

IED has replaced the former applicable IPPC-directive and BAT conclusions have received a more prominent role in approval procedures in which they now will be used as references. The BAT conclusions are now central enough that they should not be deviated from, except... (More)
This thesis regards the changes to Best Available Techniques, BAT, which the implementation of the Industrial Emissions Directive, IED, has brought on. The purpose is to discuss how and in which ways BAT has developed in Sweden as a result of IED.

BAT belongs to the general rules of consideration which makes it central in all forms of professional operation. In context the principal of BAT is applicable with regards to the heaviest industries in Sweden and the entire EU.

IED has replaced the former applicable IPPC-directive and BAT conclusions have received a more prominent role in approval procedures in which they now will be used as references. The BAT conclusions are now central enough that they should not be deviated from, except under special circumstances by an exemption proceeding which require motivation and documentation to be reported to the EU commission. The BAT conclusions states what the best technique currently deemed is and is stated with or without limit values as well as with or without a specific technique. The requisite is not absolute as long as the substitute is tantamount. The limit values are stated as intervals of emission levels and may not be overstepped.

The BAT conclusions belongs to a living document, continuously updated every eight years by a committee proceeding. The work groups of the EU commission are now joined by non-state environmental organizations in the work with the BAT conclusions.

Within a four year period the operators will review their terms of approval, ensuring that they coincide with the BAT conclusions. This is a form of self-supervision which has replaced individual evaluation proceedings by the approval authorities. Sweden has elected to implement the rules of BAT conclusions through general instructions in a new directive: Industriutsläppsförordningen (IUF). The administrative burden diminishes and at the same time it is cost efficient for both the approval authorities and the operator. Even the fact that Sweden has been convicted in the EU court for treaty violations, by not fulfilling the IPPC-directive demand on reviewing all operators requiring approval, is seen as a lesson learnt in the general instructions.

In Sweden the approval conditions will be applied in parallel with the BAT conclusions in the IUF. In a possible collision the harshest demand applies in order to attain high environmental protection. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Den här uppsatsen handlar om de förändringar på bästa tillgängliga teknik, d.v.s. BAT, som implementeringen av industriutsläppsdirektivet (IED) har inneburit. Syftet är att diskutera hur och på vilket sätt BAT har utvecklats i Sverige till följd av IED.

BAT tillhör de allmänna hänsynsreglerna vilket gör den central vid all form av yrkesmässig verksamhet. I sammanhanget är principen om BAT tillämplig på de allra tyngsta industrierna inom Sverige och hela EU.

IED har ersatt det tidigare tillämpliga IPPC-direktivet och BAT har utvecklats så att BAT-slutsatserna har fått en mer framskjuten roll i tillståndsprövningen där de nu ska användas som referens. BAT-slutsatserna är så centrala att de inte ska gå att frångå förutom i undantagsfall... (More)
Den här uppsatsen handlar om de förändringar på bästa tillgängliga teknik, d.v.s. BAT, som implementeringen av industriutsläppsdirektivet (IED) har inneburit. Syftet är att diskutera hur och på vilket sätt BAT har utvecklats i Sverige till följd av IED.

BAT tillhör de allmänna hänsynsreglerna vilket gör den central vid all form av yrkesmässig verksamhet. I sammanhanget är principen om BAT tillämplig på de allra tyngsta industrierna inom Sverige och hela EU.

IED har ersatt det tidigare tillämpliga IPPC-direktivet och BAT har utvecklats så att BAT-slutsatserna har fått en mer framskjuten roll i tillståndsprövningen där de nu ska användas som referens. BAT-slutsatserna är så centrala att de inte ska gå att frångå förutom i undantagsfall genom ett dispensförfarande som kräver motivering och dokumentation som sedan ska rapporteras till EU-kommissionen. BAT-slutsatserna anger vad som anses vara den bästa tekniken vilket sker med eller utan begränsningsvärden och med eller utan en föreskriven teknik. Kravet på teknik är inte absolut så länge substitutet är likvärdigt. Begränsningsvärdena anges i intervaller om utsläppsnivåer som inte får överskridas.

BAT-slutsatserna tillhör ett levande dokument som kontinuerligt ska uppdateras vart åttonde år genom ett kommittéförfarande. I EU-kommisionens arbetsgrupper deltar nu även ickestatliga miljöskyddsorganisationer med att ta fram BAT-slutsatser.

Inom en fyra års period ska verksamhetsutövaren sedan se över sina tillståndsvillkor så att de överensstämmer med BAT-slutsatserna. Detta är en form av egenkontroll som har fått ersätta en individuell omprövning hos tillståndsmyndigheten. Sverige har valt att implementera reglerna om BAT-slutsatserna genom generella föreskrifter i en ny förordning: industriutsläppsförordningen (IUF). Den administrativa bördan minskar samtidigt som det är en kostnadseffektivisering för både prövningsmyndigheten och verksamhetsutövaren. Även det faktum att Sverige tidigare fällts i EU-domstolen för fördragsbrott genom att inte uppfylla IPPC-direktivets krav på omprövning av alla tillståndspliktiga verksamheter, ses som en lärdom med de generella föreskrifterna.

I Sverige ska tillståndsvillkoren gälla parallellt med BAT-slutsatserna i IUF. Vid en eventuell konflikt gäller det strängaste kravet för att uppnå ett högt miljöskydd. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Svensson, Therese LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Best available techniques (BAT) -How has BAT changed becaurse of the industrial emissions directive?
course
JUR092 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Förvaltningsrätt, Miljörätt
language
Swedish
id
7363313
date added to LUP
2015-06-17 12:59:49
date last changed
2015-06-18 14:04:28
@misc{7363313,
  abstract     = {This thesis regards the changes to Best Available Techniques, BAT, which the implementation of the Industrial Emissions Directive, IED, has brought on. The purpose is to discuss how and in which ways BAT has developed in Sweden as a result of IED.

BAT belongs to the general rules of consideration which makes it central in all forms of professional operation. In context the principal of BAT is applicable with regards to the heaviest industries in Sweden and the entire EU.

IED has replaced the former applicable IPPC-directive and BAT conclusions have received a more prominent role in approval procedures in which they now will be used as references. The BAT conclusions are now central enough that they should not be deviated from, except under special circumstances by an exemption proceeding which require motivation and documentation to be reported to the EU commission. The BAT conclusions states what the best technique currently deemed is and is stated with or without limit values as well as with or without a specific technique. The requisite is not absolute as long as the substitute is tantamount. The limit values are stated as intervals of emission levels and may not be overstepped.

The BAT conclusions belongs to a living document, continuously updated every eight years by a committee proceeding. The work groups of the EU commission are now joined by non-state environmental organizations in the work with the BAT conclusions.

Within a four year period the operators will review their terms of approval, ensuring that they coincide with the BAT conclusions. This is a form of self-supervision which has replaced individual evaluation proceedings by the approval authorities. Sweden has elected to implement the rules of BAT conclusions through general instructions in a new directive: Industriutsläppsförordningen (IUF). The administrative burden diminishes and at the same time it is cost efficient for both the approval authorities and the operator. Even the fact that Sweden has been convicted in the EU court for treaty violations, by not fulfilling the IPPC-directive demand on reviewing all operators requiring approval, is seen as a lesson learnt in the general instructions.

In Sweden the approval conditions will be applied in parallel with the BAT conclusions in the IUF. In a possible collision the harshest demand applies in order to attain high environmental protection.},
  author       = {Svensson, Therese},
  keyword      = {Förvaltningsrätt,Miljörätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Bästa tillgängliga teknik (BAT) -Hur har BAT förändrats i och med industriutsläppsdirektivet?},
  year         = {2014},
}