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Petroleum activities, wetland utilization and livelihood changes in Southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria: 2003-2015

Koffi, Unwana Saturday LU (2015) In Lund University GEM thesis series NGEM01 20151
Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
Abstract
The state of Akwa Ibom, Nigeria is known as one of the wetlands rich in biodiversity as well as oil and gas reserves. Its wetland ecosystem is noted for its primary support it has provided for the people living in this area. However, this wetland has also been a reservoir for Nigeria’s crude oil contributing a prominent share of petroleum product to the country’s GDP, total revenue to the government through exports and other fiscal surpluses, making it Africa’s largest economy. But back home where the resources is harnessed to achieved and attained the height of this economic successes the situation is a direct contrast, petroleum activities is mostly synonymous to environmental pollution, degradation, conflicts and crises. Wetland is not... (More)
The state of Akwa Ibom, Nigeria is known as one of the wetlands rich in biodiversity as well as oil and gas reserves. Its wetland ecosystem is noted for its primary support it has provided for the people living in this area. However, this wetland has also been a reservoir for Nigeria’s crude oil contributing a prominent share of petroleum product to the country’s GDP, total revenue to the government through exports and other fiscal surpluses, making it Africa’s largest economy. But back home where the resources is harnessed to achieved and attained the height of this economic successes the situation is a direct contrast, petroleum activities is mostly synonymous to environmental pollution, degradation, conflicts and crises. Wetland is not left out of these adverse effects. Therefore this study was based on the impact of petroleum activities and its effects on wetland, agricultural practices within the wetland, people’s livelihood as well as strategies for sustainable management of wetland in the study area. GIS and Remote Sensing was used, by adding ancillary data from ground truth points and other reference sources to the thematic LULC satellite images of the study area. Erdas Imagine and ArcMap were used in processing, monitoring and mapping the wetland changes caused by petroleum activities and the consequent effects of these actions by assessing the pattern of distribution of the affected wetland, taking into consideration the baseline data such as vegetation types, densities, phenology, as well as land use cover types. Livelihood changes were measured by conducting interviews to different stakeholders in the course of this research. The result showed that there has been a significant change in the wetland area of Southern Akwa Ibom State though more than 68% of the wetland mapped had not changed. While wetland was increasing in some areas others experienced a decrease. Livelihood changes in the area shows that petroleum activities have benefited the people in areas of employments both directly and indirectly although they are still expecting an improvement in areas such as provision of farm inputs, health and housing facilities from the Multinational Oil Companies. It was observed that management of the wetland was majorly based on traditional methods of total and periodic restrictions to some community preserved areas as well as periodic fallowing. The traditional management strategies of seasonal restrictions and buffers is not sustainable enough to protect and preserved the wetlands from complete degradation and as such measures should be taken to sensitize all stakeholders in the study area to adhere to the government laid down laws and regulations in order to protect, preserve and ensure a sustainable wetland for future generations. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Nigeria’s Akwa Ibom State is a region that is naturally endowed with rich wetlands containing abundance of oil and gas deposits. These wetlands have been a source of primary support for the inhabitants of the area. It also forms one of Nigeria’s crude oil bases that contribute immensely to the vast petroleum product of the country. Nigeria has an increased revenue base due to production and exports of this crude oil making her the leading and largest economy in Africa. With this gigantic economic achievement one would expect that these successes be translated into the betterment of the generality of the people as well as the sustainability of the environment where these activities are carried out. Rather, petroleum activities in the region... (More)
Nigeria’s Akwa Ibom State is a region that is naturally endowed with rich wetlands containing abundance of oil and gas deposits. These wetlands have been a source of primary support for the inhabitants of the area. It also forms one of Nigeria’s crude oil bases that contribute immensely to the vast petroleum product of the country. Nigeria has an increased revenue base due to production and exports of this crude oil making her the leading and largest economy in Africa. With this gigantic economic achievement one would expect that these successes be translated into the betterment of the generality of the people as well as the sustainability of the environment where these activities are carried out. Rather, petroleum activities in the region have led to environmental pollution, degradation, conflicts and crises within the host communities. Wetland is one of the major ecosystems polluted and degraded by petroleum activities in the region. Therefore, this study was based on the impact of petroleum activities and how it affects the wetlands, the agricultural practices within the wetlands and the people’s livelihood within this region. It also assessed the strategies used for sustainable management of wetlands within the area.
The methods used in the study were mainly Geographic Information System (GIS) which enabled the collection and processing of geographic data and Remote Sensing (RS) which provides information on geographic objects using satellite or airborne platforms. Primary and secondary sources such as using Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver which provides information on spatial data position was used to collect ground truth sample points. Thematic Land Use Land Cover satellite images of the study area as well as other relevant reference materials were also acquired. GIS and Remote Sensing software like Erdas Imagine and ArcMap were used in processing, monitoring and mapping the wetland changes caused by petroleum activities and the consequent effects of these actions, by assessing the pattern of distribution of the affected wetland, taking into consideration the baseline data such as vegetation types, densities, phenology, as well as land use cover types. On the measurement of livelihood changes, interviews were conducted across the different stakeholders within the study.
The result showed that there has been a significant change in the wetland area of Southern Akwa Ibom State though more than 68% of the wetland mapped had not changed. While wetland was increasing in some areas others experienced a decrease. Livelihood changes in the area shows that petroleum activities have benefited the people in areas of employments both directly and indirectly although they are still expecting an improvement in areas such as provision of farm inputs, health and housing facilities from the Multinational Oil Companies. It was observed that management of the wetland was majorly based on traditional methods of total and periodic restrictions to some community preserved areas as well as periodic fallowing. The traditional management strategies of seasonal restrictions and buffers is not sustainable enough to protect and preserved the wetlands from complete degradation and as such measures should be taken to sensitize all stakeholders in the study area to adhere to the government laid down laws and regulations in order to protect, preserve and ensure a sustainable wetland for future generations. (Less)
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author
Koffi, Unwana Saturday LU
supervisor
organization
course
NGEM01 20151
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, GEM, iivelihood changes, sustainable management, wetland agriculture, land cover change, remote sensing, petroleum, wetland degradation, Nigeria
publication/series
Lund University GEM thesis series
report number
10
language
English
additional info
To my dear parents Pastor and Shepherdess Saturday Koffi of blessed memory whose inspiration I derived thus far, I remain grateful, and will always be grateful till we see again.
To my lovely wife and the most precious treasure in my estate, I say thank you, you are the love of my life and so shall it be, Amen. Because we trust Him forever and for all, success will follow us all the days of our lives. To my Lovely daughter MmaAbasi, I pronounce higher height in many folds more than mine, as you witness this great success of your father.
id
7988342
date added to LUP
2015-09-23 12:47:03
date last changed
2015-09-23 12:47:03
@misc{7988342,
  abstract     = {The state of Akwa Ibom, Nigeria is known as one of the wetlands rich in biodiversity as well as oil and gas reserves. Its wetland ecosystem is noted for its primary support it has provided for the people living in this area. However, this wetland has also been a reservoir for Nigeria’s crude oil contributing a prominent share of petroleum product to the country’s GDP, total revenue to the government through exports and other fiscal surpluses, making it Africa’s largest economy. But back home where the resources is harnessed to achieved and attained the height of this economic successes the situation is a direct contrast, petroleum activities is mostly synonymous to environmental pollution, degradation, conflicts and crises. Wetland is not left out of these adverse effects. Therefore this study was based on the impact of petroleum activities and its effects on wetland, agricultural practices within the wetland, people’s livelihood as well as strategies for sustainable management of wetland in the study area. GIS and Remote Sensing was used, by adding ancillary data from ground truth points and other reference sources to the thematic LULC satellite images of the study area. Erdas Imagine and ArcMap were used in processing, monitoring and mapping the wetland changes caused by petroleum activities and the consequent effects of these actions by assessing the pattern of distribution of the affected wetland, taking into consideration the baseline data such as vegetation types, densities, phenology, as well as land use cover types. Livelihood changes were measured by conducting interviews to different stakeholders in the course of this research. The result showed that there has been a significant change in the wetland area of Southern Akwa Ibom State though more than 68% of the wetland mapped had not changed. While wetland was increasing in some areas others experienced a decrease. Livelihood changes in the area shows that petroleum activities have benefited the people in areas of employments both directly and indirectly although they are still expecting an improvement in areas such as provision of farm inputs, health and housing facilities from the Multinational Oil Companies. It was observed that management of the wetland was majorly based on traditional methods of total and periodic restrictions to some community preserved areas as well as periodic fallowing. The traditional management strategies of seasonal restrictions and buffers is not sustainable enough to protect and preserved the wetlands from complete degradation and as such measures should be taken to sensitize all stakeholders in the study area to adhere to the government laid down laws and regulations in order to protect, preserve and ensure a sustainable wetland for future generations.},
  author       = {Koffi, Unwana Saturday},
  keyword      = {Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science,GEM,iivelihood changes,sustainable management,wetland agriculture,land cover change,remote sensing,petroleum,wetland degradation,Nigeria},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Lund University GEM thesis series},
  title        = {Petroleum activities, wetland utilization and livelihood changes in Southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria: 2003-2015},
  year         = {2015},
}