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I huvudet på en skallsparkare - Om uppsåt och rubricering vid sparkar mot huvudet

Kontosic, Marie (2016) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Uppsatsen behandlar den rättsliga innebörden av sparkar mot huvudet, för att ge en juridiskt relevant helhetsbild. Grundproblematiken som undersöks är huruvida domstolarna kan döma för mordförsök i större utsträckning än vad som sker idag, istället för misshandelsbrott. Problematiken undersöks ur två aspekter av konformitetsprincipen, enligt vilken bara den som kunnat rätta sig efter lagen bör straffas för att ha brutit mot den. Dels används principen på klassiskt vis som rättssäkerhetsprincip, dels får den problematisera vilka krav som faktiskt går att ställa på människor.

För att kunna utreda hur domstolen kan döma annorlunda, måste först redas ut hur de dömer idag. Våldsbrott där sparkar mot huvudet förekommit särbehandlas inte... (More)
Uppsatsen behandlar den rättsliga innebörden av sparkar mot huvudet, för att ge en juridiskt relevant helhetsbild. Grundproblematiken som undersöks är huruvida domstolarna kan döma för mordförsök i större utsträckning än vad som sker idag, istället för misshandelsbrott. Problematiken undersöks ur två aspekter av konformitetsprincipen, enligt vilken bara den som kunnat rätta sig efter lagen bör straffas för att ha brutit mot den. Dels används principen på klassiskt vis som rättssäkerhetsprincip, dels får den problematisera vilka krav som faktiskt går att ställa på människor.

För att kunna utreda hur domstolen kan döma annorlunda, måste först redas ut hur de dömer idag. Våldsbrott där sparkar mot huvudet förekommit särbehandlas inte nämnvärt i svensk rätt. Brotten rör sig ofta i gränslandet mellan misshandel och mord. När offret överlevt lutar praxis mot rubriceringen grov misshandel. När offret dött visar det sig ofta svårt att visa uppsåt för den dödliga följden, varpå rubriceringen blir grov misshandel i kombination med vållande till annans död. För att uppsåt ska föreligga måste gärningspersonen insett risken för följden, och varit likgiltig inför dess inträffande. Att någon fälls för mordförsök respektive mord är sällsynt vid sparkar mot huvudet.

För att komma vidare måste därför utredas risken för följden, och medvetenheten om den. Enligt uppsatsens rättsmedicinska undersökning kan en mängd skador uppkomma, många av dem direkt dödliga. Någon generell dödlighetsfrekvens går inte att fastställa. Uppsatsens empiriska del undersöker riskinsikten av ett stickprov ur den del av befolkningen som oftast begår den undersökta brottstypen – unga män. Resultaten visar att det finns en mycket hög medvetenhet bland de svarande. Resultaten visar också att många av de unga männen uppskattar en gärningspersons attityd som likgiltig inför följden.

Alltså finns det stora risker med sparkandet, och en stor medvetenhet bland de som oftast utövar våldet. Slutsatsen blir därmed att det finns goda utsikter att i större utsträckning än idag döma för mordförsök respektive mord. I varje fall behövs därtill göras en bedömning av gärningspersonens attityd. I uppsatsen presenteras förslag på hur det kan göras, och kritik framförs mot resonemang som förekommer i flera domar. (Less)
Abstract
This paper covers the legal aspects of kicking to the head, in order to provide a relevant juridical overall picture. The main issue being examined is whether or not the court can convict someone for attempted murder to a greater extent than is the case today, instead of assault. The problem is examined in two aspects of the Swedish principle of conformity, according to which only a person who could comply with the law should be punished for violating it. First, the principle is used in a traditional manner as a principle of legal certainty. Second, the principle questions what demands people can actually be expected to conform to.

In order to investigate how the courts may rule differently, today’s rulings must be examined. Crimes... (More)
This paper covers the legal aspects of kicking to the head, in order to provide a relevant juridical overall picture. The main issue being examined is whether or not the court can convict someone for attempted murder to a greater extent than is the case today, instead of assault. The problem is examined in two aspects of the Swedish principle of conformity, according to which only a person who could comply with the law should be punished for violating it. First, the principle is used in a traditional manner as a principle of legal certainty. Second, the principle questions what demands people can actually be expected to conform to.

In order to investigate how the courts may rule differently, today’s rulings must be examined. Crimes where kicking to the head is a part of the charge are not subject to special treatment in any significant way. Often, the crimes are somewhere between assault and homicide. In many of the cases where the victim survives, conviction of aggravated assault is custom. If the victim dies, it is often hard to prove that the perpetrator intended to cause the death, which results in the accused getting convicted of aggravated assault combined with manslaughter. In order to establish intent, the perpetrator must have realised that there was a risk for the consequence, and must have been indifferent to its occurrence. It is rare for someone to be convicted of attempted murder or homicide in cases regarding kicking to the head.

Therefore, in order to move on, the risk of the consequence and the awareness of that risk need to be investigated. The section of the paper pertaining to forensic medicine concludes that a wide variety of different injuries occur, many of them directly fatal. However, no exact mortality rate can be determined. The empirical section of the paper examines risk awareness in the group where perpetrators are most common – namely young men. The results suggest that there is a very high level of awareness among the respondents. The results also show that many of the young men who were asked estimated a perpetrator’s attitude towards the consequence as being indifferent.

Thus, there are major risks connected to the kicking, and there is a great awareness among those that usually commit these crimes. The conclusion is therefore that the prospects of convicting more offenders of attempted murder to a greater extent than today are good. In all cases the court also has to assess whether the perpetrator was indifferent to the consequence or not. This paper will present suggestions on how this can be done, as well as question the line of reasoning in several judgements. (Less)
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author
Kontosic, Marie
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Inside the head of a head kicker
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, uppsåt, rättsmedicin, rättssociologi, mord, misshandel, huvud, rättsintyg
language
Swedish
id
8511339
date added to LUP
2016-02-04 13:20:25
date last changed
2016-02-12 09:33:55
@misc{8511339,
  abstract     = {This paper covers the legal aspects of kicking to the head, in order to provide a relevant juridical overall picture. The main issue being examined is whether or not the court can convict someone for attempted murder to a greater extent than is the case today, instead of assault. The problem is examined in two aspects of the Swedish principle of conformity, according to which only a person who could comply with the law should be punished for violating it. First, the principle is used in a traditional manner as a principle of legal certainty. Second, the principle questions what demands people can actually be expected to conform to. 

In order to investigate how the courts may rule differently, today’s rulings must be examined. Crimes where kicking to the head is a part of the charge are not subject to special treatment in any significant way. Often, the crimes are somewhere between assault and homicide. In many of the cases where the victim survives, conviction of aggravated assault is custom. If the victim dies, it is often hard to prove that the perpetrator intended to cause the death, which results in the accused getting convicted of aggravated assault combined with manslaughter. In order to establish intent, the perpetrator must have realised that there was a risk for the consequence, and must have been indifferent to its occurrence. It is rare for someone to be convicted of attempted murder or homicide in cases regarding kicking to the head. 

Therefore, in order to move on, the risk of the consequence and the awareness of that risk need to be investigated. The section of the paper pertaining to forensic medicine concludes that a wide variety of different injuries occur, many of them directly fatal. However, no exact mortality rate can be determined. The empirical section of the paper examines risk awareness in the group where perpetrators are most common – namely young men. The results suggest that there is a very high level of awareness among the respondents. The results also show that many of the young men who were asked estimated a perpetrator’s attitude towards the consequence as being indifferent. 

Thus, there are major risks connected to the kicking, and there is a great awareness among those that usually commit these crimes. The conclusion is therefore that the prospects of convicting more offenders of attempted murder to a greater extent than today are good. In all cases the court also has to assess whether the perpetrator was indifferent to the consequence or not. This paper will present suggestions on how this can be done, as well as question the line of reasoning in several judgements.},
  author       = {Kontosic, Marie},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,uppsåt,rättsmedicin,rättssociologi,mord,misshandel,huvud,rättsintyg},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {I huvudet på en skallsparkare - Om uppsåt och rubricering vid sparkar mot huvudet},
  year         = {2016},
}