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Funktionshinder eller funktionsnedsättning - Om definitionerna och diskursen

Mosslind, Mathilda LU (2015) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Rådets direktiv 2000/78/EG av den 27 november om inrättande av en allmän ram för likabehandling, det så kallade arbetslivsdirektivet, syftar till att bekämpa diskriminering i arbetslivet bl.a. på grunden funktionshinder. Arbetslivsdirektivet har till stor del införlivats svensk rätt genom diskrimineringslagen (2008:567). I januari 2015 gjordes för diskrimineringslagens vidkommande en språklig ändring, begreppet funktionshinder ändrades till funktionsnedsättning.

Uppsatsens huvudsakliga syfte är att utreda vad som fordras för att en person ska omfattas av respektive begrepp. Diskrimineringslagens begrepp funktionsnedsättning måste med anledning av Sveriges unionsrättsliga åtaganden minst motsvara begreppet funktionshinder varför... (More)
Rådets direktiv 2000/78/EG av den 27 november om inrättande av en allmän ram för likabehandling, det så kallade arbetslivsdirektivet, syftar till att bekämpa diskriminering i arbetslivet bl.a. på grunden funktionshinder. Arbetslivsdirektivet har till stor del införlivats svensk rätt genom diskrimineringslagen (2008:567). I januari 2015 gjordes för diskrimineringslagens vidkommande en språklig ändring, begreppet funktionshinder ändrades till funktionsnedsättning.

Uppsatsens huvudsakliga syfte är att utreda vad som fordras för att en person ska omfattas av respektive begrepp. Diskrimineringslagens begrepp funktionsnedsättning måste med anledning av Sveriges unionsrättsliga åtaganden minst motsvara begreppet funktionshinder varför uppsatsen undersöker om det svenska begreppet går utöver arbetslivsdirektivets begrepp. Ytterligare ett syfte är att med ett diskursanalytiskt angreppssätt undersöka hur det talas om personer med funktionsnedsättning i det rättsliga materialet. Begreppsutvecklingen samt den diskursiva praktiken ställs även i relation till definitionen av personer med funktionsnedsättning vilken återfinns i FN: s konvention om rättigheter för personer med funktionsnedsättning (CRPD). Här används valda delar av Anna Bruces framåtsyftande analys av CRPD: s begrepp.

Såväl EU som Sverige har ratificerat CRPD vilken trädde i kraft den 3 maj 2008. CRPD torde besvara frågan vad som menas med funktionsnedsättning i ett mänskliga rättigheter-perspektiv och har potential att spela stor roll för rättsutvecklingen världen över. CRPD representerar ett socialt synsätt på funktionsnedsättning enligt vilket funktionsnedsättningen härrör från individens tillstånd i samspel med olika hinder som uppställs av den omgivning och kontext i vilken individen befinner sig.

Innebörden av begreppet funktionshinder har utvecklats i EU-domstolens praxis. Definitionen innefattar idag varaktiga tillstånd orsakade av fysiska, psykiska eller mentala skador som medför en begränsning i förhållande till en persons deltagande i arbetslivet. Varken sjukdom eller fetma utgör självständiga diskrimineringsgrunder men tillstånd som orsakas av sjukdomen respektive fetman kan, givet att de uppfyller ovan nämnda kriterier, utgöra funktionshinder. Principen om likabehandling kräver att direktivet äger tillämplighet även i den situation där en person som har anknytning till en person med funktionshinder utsätts för diskriminerande behandling. Diskrimineringslagens begrepp funktionsnedsättning omfattar dessutom funktionsnedsättningar som inte föreligger just i det ögonblick då viss diskriminerande handling äger rum. Rättsläget för sådana tillstånd är för arbetslivsdirektivets vidkommande ännu är att se som oklart.

Utformningen av såväl begreppet funktionshinder som begreppet funktionsnedsättning påverkas av CRPD: s begrepp men graden av påverkan synes bero av vilka befogenheter EU tilldelats samt vilka ambitioner Sverige som stat har beträffande diskrimineringsrättsligt skydd för personer med funktionsnedsättning. Sedan EU-domstolens avgörande i förenade målen C-335/11 och C-337/11 (Ring och Skouboe Werge) representerar arbetslivsdirektivets begrepp funktionshinder ett socialt synsätt på funktionshinder. För diskrimineringslagens vidkommande infördes den 1 januari 2015 diskrimineringsgrunden bristande tillgänglighet, vilken är att se som en transformation av CRPD och dess sociala synsätt på funktionsnedsättning. Majoriteten av EU-domstolens avgöranden har behandlat huruvida individens tillstånd motsvarar de kriterier som definitionen uppställer. Mot bakgrund av EU-domstolens anammande av det sociala synsättet på funktionshinder skulle domstolens syn på vad som kan utgöra en begränsning i förhållande till en persons deltagande i arbetslivet i mål C-363/12 (Z) kunna kritiseras.


Utifrån antagandet att ordval och språklig framställning har betydelse för hur personer med funktionsnedsättning uppfattas undersöker uppsatsen den rättsliga diskursen och/eller de överväganden som gjorts beträffande diskursens karaktär. Utifrån problematiserande av en samhällelig norm om funktionsfullkomlighet har ett begrepp, föreställningar, lagts till grund för att undersöka huruvida diskursen implicerar att samhället kan indelas i ”funktionsfullkomliga” och ”andra” (personer). Vidare har utifrån ett andra begrepp, värderingar, studerats i vilka ordalag personer med funktionsnedsättning beskrivs. Vid förhandlingarna som ledde fram till antagandet av CRPD avfärdades ord som ansågs inge en negativ bild av personer med funktionsnedsättning. Även Sverige synes, bl.a. utifrån begreppsändringen, medveten om diskursens betydelse. Vid tillämpningen av direktivet, representerat av EU-domstolens domar samt förslag till avgöranden, synes den rättsliga diskursens betydelse dock föga uppmärksammad eller iakttagen. (Less)
Abstract
The main purpose of the essay is to investigate two legal terms defining disability, as found in Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation and in the Swedish Discrimination Act (2008:78). The concept of disability according to the Discrimination Act has to fulfil the provisions set up by the EU. The term ”disability” within the EU legal sphere is defined by a number of provisions. This essay aims to investigate whether the Swedish term corresponds with the EU one, or whether it includes a wider range of conditions. The development of the two concepts is also related to the concept of persons with disabilities found in the UN Convention on the Rights of... (More)
The main purpose of the essay is to investigate two legal terms defining disability, as found in Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation and in the Swedish Discrimination Act (2008:78). The concept of disability according to the Discrimination Act has to fulfil the provisions set up by the EU. The term ”disability” within the EU legal sphere is defined by a number of provisions. This essay aims to investigate whether the Swedish term corresponds with the EU one, or whether it includes a wider range of conditions. The development of the two concepts is also related to the concept of persons with disabilities found in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). In the section of the thesis dealing with this term, selected parts of Anna Bruce's forward-looking analysis of the CRPD's concept is used. A second purpose of the essay is to examine, using a discourse analytical method, how persons with disabilities are portrayed in the legal sources.

Both the EU and Sweden have ratified CRPD, which came into force on 3 May 2008. The CRPD seemingly answers the question of what is meant by the term disability within a human rights perspective and has the potential to play a major role in the development of law and policy worldwide. CRPD represents a social approach towards disability in which disability is derived from the individual's condition in interaction with various barriers imposed by the environment and the context in which the individual is found.

The EU concept of disability has been developed by case law from the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). Today, the definition includes long lasting conditions caused by physical, mental or psychological impairments that limit the person concerned in professional life. Neither disease nor obesity is to be considered independent grounds prohibiting discrimination but a condition caused by disease or obesity can, given that it meets the above-described criteria, constitute a disability. The principle of equal treatment requires that the directive is applicable even in a situation where a person affiliated with a person with disability is subjected to discriminatory treatment. Furthermore, the concept of disability according to the Discrimination Act includes disabilities that do not exist in the exact moment when a certain discriminatory action takes place. Under EU law, the legal implications of such conditions are yet unclear.

Both concepts of disability are affected by the CRPD concept. The degree of influence seemingly depends on the extent to which the EU has been granted competence, and the ambition level of Sweden as a state to further anti-discrimination legislation. The CJEU’s ruling in joined cases C-335/11 and C-337/11 (Ring and Skouboe Werge) can be viewed as a paradigm shift regarding the view on disability, since the CJEU embraced a social approach to disability. Moreover, also the Discrimination Act represents a social approach with, inter alia, its use of lack of availability as a discriminatory ground.

The majority of the cases before the CJEU have dealt with whether an individual’s condition corresponds to the criteria set for discrimination. In the light of the CJEU’s embrace of the social approach to disability, the court's view of what could constitute a restriction in relation to a person's participation in professional life in case C-363/12 (Z) could be criticized.

Based on the assumption that choice of words and linguistic depiction influences how persons with disabilities are perceived, the essay examines the legal discourse and/or the considerations made concerning the character of the discourse. The concept of compulsory able-bodiedness, viewed as a social norm, underlies the examination of whether the discourse implies that society can be divided into "able-bodied" and "other" (people). The essay also examines in what words people with disabilities are described and seeks to clarify whether these words may create or maintain a negative portrait of persons with disabilities. During the negotiations preceding the CRPD wordings that were considered to present a negative image of people with disabilities were dismissed. The word for disability in the Discrimination Act was recently amended. This amendment, being solely linguistic, indicates that the Swedish legislator has given the discourse some attention. The importance of the legal discourse seems not to have been taken into much consideration by the EU, as represented by the CJEU and the opinions of the advocates general. (Less)
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author
Mosslind, Mathilda LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
rättsvetenskap, civilrätt, EU-rätt, diskrimineringsrätt, diskursanalys, funktionshinder, funktionsnedsättning
language
Swedish
id
8512086
date added to LUP
2016-01-29 12:56:24
date last changed
2016-01-29 12:56:24
@misc{8512086,
  abstract     = {The main purpose of the essay is to investigate two legal terms defining disability, as found in Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation and in the Swedish Discrimination Act (2008:78). The concept of disability according to the Discrimination Act has to fulfil the provisions set up by the EU. The term ”disability” within the EU legal sphere is defined by a number of provisions. This essay aims to investigate whether the Swedish term corresponds with the EU one, or whether it includes a wider range of conditions. The development of the two concepts is also related to the concept of persons with disabilities found in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). In the section of the thesis dealing with this term, selected parts of Anna Bruce's forward-looking analysis of the CRPD's concept is used. A second purpose of the essay is to examine, using a discourse analytical method, how persons with disabilities are portrayed in the legal sources. 

Both the EU and Sweden have ratified CRPD, which came into force on 3 May 2008. The CRPD seemingly answers the question of what is meant by the term disability within a human rights perspective and has the potential to play a major role in the development of law and policy worldwide. CRPD represents a social approach towards disability in which disability is derived from the individual's condition in interaction with various barriers imposed by the environment and the context in which the individual is found.

The EU concept of disability has been developed by case law from the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). Today, the definition includes long lasting conditions caused by physical, mental or psychological impairments that limit the person concerned in professional life. Neither disease nor obesity is to be considered independent grounds prohibiting discrimination but a condition caused by disease or obesity can, given that it meets the above-described criteria, constitute a disability. The principle of equal treatment requires that the directive is applicable even in a situation where a person affiliated with a person with disability is subjected to discriminatory treatment. Furthermore, the concept of disability according to the Discrimination Act includes disabilities that do not exist in the exact moment when a certain discriminatory action takes place. Under EU law, the legal implications of such conditions are yet unclear.

Both concepts of disability are affected by the CRPD concept. The degree of influence seemingly depends on the extent to which the EU has been granted competence, and the ambition level of Sweden as a state to further anti-discrimination legislation. The CJEU’s ruling in joined cases C-335/11 and C-337/11 (Ring and Skouboe Werge) can be viewed as a paradigm shift regarding the view on disability, since the CJEU embraced a social approach to disability. Moreover, also the Discrimination Act represents a social approach with, inter alia, its use of lack of availability as a discriminatory ground. 

The majority of the cases before the CJEU have dealt with whether an individual’s condition corresponds to the criteria set for discrimination. In the light of the CJEU’s embrace of the social approach to disability, the court's view of what could constitute a restriction in relation to a person's participation in professional life in case C-363/12 (Z) could be criticized.

Based on the assumption that choice of words and linguistic depiction influences how persons with disabilities are perceived, the essay examines the legal discourse and/or the considerations made concerning the character of the discourse. The concept of compulsory able-bodiedness, viewed as a social norm, underlies the examination of whether the discourse implies that society can be divided into "able-bodied" and "other" (people). The essay also examines in what words people with disabilities are described and seeks to clarify whether these words may create or maintain a negative portrait of persons with disabilities. During the negotiations preceding the CRPD wordings that were considered to present a negative image of people with disabilities were dismissed. The word for disability in the Discrimination Act was recently amended. This amendment, being solely linguistic, indicates that the Swedish legislator has given the discourse some attention. The importance of the legal discourse seems not to have been taken into much consideration by the EU, as represented by the CJEU and the opinions of the advocates general.},
  author       = {Mosslind, Mathilda},
  keyword      = {rättsvetenskap,civilrätt,EU-rätt,diskrimineringsrätt,diskursanalys,funktionshinder,funktionsnedsättning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Funktionshinder eller funktionsnedsättning - Om definitionerna och diskursen},
  year         = {2015},
}