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Dokumentvillkorade garantier och borgen - särskilt om återkrav i samband med dokumentvillkorade garantier

Eriksson, Hampus LU (2016) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
En säljare kan drabbas av förluster om köparen inte kan, eller vill, betala för varorna. För att överbrygga detta problem och möjliggöra handel kan säljaren kräva att köparen uppdrar åt en professionell garantiutställare, vars solvens och pålitlighet är enklare att bedöma, att utställa en garanti avseende köparens förpliktelser.

Beroende på hur villkoren för fullgörelse enligt garantin är utformade kan det vara svårt för garanten att avgöra huruvida denne är förpliktad att fullgöra till beneficienten eller inte. Mot bakgrund av detta dilemma har särskilda garantiformer, såsom den dokumentvillkorade garantin, utvecklats.

Vid en dokumentvillkorad garanti har garanten att fullgöra endast på villkor att angivna dokument presenteras för... (More)
En säljare kan drabbas av förluster om köparen inte kan, eller vill, betala för varorna. För att överbrygga detta problem och möjliggöra handel kan säljaren kräva att köparen uppdrar åt en professionell garantiutställare, vars solvens och pålitlighet är enklare att bedöma, att utställa en garanti avseende köparens förpliktelser.

Beroende på hur villkoren för fullgörelse enligt garantin är utformade kan det vara svårt för garanten att avgöra huruvida denne är förpliktad att fullgöra till beneficienten eller inte. Mot bakgrund av detta dilemma har särskilda garantiformer, såsom den dokumentvillkorade garantin, utvecklats.

Vid en dokumentvillkorad garanti har garanten att fullgöra endast på villkor att angivna dokument presenteras för garanten och invändningar hänförliga till det underliggande förhållandet, basavtalet, saknar relevans. På så vis är det tänkt att det ska bli enklare för garanten att bedöma huruvida han är skyldig att infria eller inte i jämförelse med många andra former av säkerhetsåtaganden, exempelvis borgen. En följd av detta är emellertid att beneficienten kan komma i åtnjutande av ett garantibelopp som överstiger dennes faktiska förlust.

Framställningens syfte är dels att avgränsa borgen respektive den dokumentvillkorade garantin - vilka villkor måste minst vara uppfyllda för att ett åtagande ska vara att klassificera som det ena eller det andra. Vidare syftar framställningen till att undersöka hur en överbetalning till följd av ett berättigat ianspråkstagande av en dokumentvillkorad garanti ska hanteras. Då svenska rättskällor rörande dokumentvillkorade garantier är ytterst begränsade präglas dessa delar av ett de lege ferenda perspektiv, där argument i hög utsträckning har hämtats från utländska rättskällor. Beträffande borgen är läget ett annat varför en klassisk rättsdogmatisk metod har tillämpats i denna del.

Framställningen finner att de nödvändiga villkor som måste vara uppfyllda för att ett åtagande ska vara att klassificera som ett borgensåtagande är att det rör sig om en garanti vars föremål är att garanten ska uppfylla viss angiven prestation i den mån gäldenären (annan) inte fullgjort denna prestation. En dokumentvillkorad garanti föreligger definitionsmässigt om garantin innehåller dokumentvillkor och inte innehåller varken accessoriska eller svårbedömda villkor.

En beneficients begäran om fullgörelse var berättigad om garantivillkoren var uppfyllda och den riskfaktor som omfattas av garantisyftet har inträffat eller begäran var förenlig med garantins syfte. Det kan emellertid visa sig att mottaget garantibelopp överstiger beneficientens faktiska förlust till följd av att den riskfaktor som garantisyftet omfattar inträffade. Framställningens avslutande kapitel undersöker hur överskjutande garantibelopp ska hanteras.

Om beneficienten tillåts behålla hela garantibeloppet gör denne en obehörig vinst, vilket inte kan tolereras; beneficienten är därför återbetalningsskyldig. Mot bakgrund av att garanten är regressberättigad gentemot uppdragsgivaren då ianspråkstagandet var berättigat uppstår inte någon obehörig vinst om återkravet tillkommer uppdragsgivaren. Denna ordning har goda skäl för sig och vilar på fast engelsk rättspraxis, där detta anses följa av ett underförstått villkor i basavtalet. (Less)
Abstract
In international sales, it is often difficult to assess the solvency of the other party. In order to overbridge this problem and ensure due performance, a professional guarantor is commonly engaged. In its basic form, the legal relationships surrounding a guarantee can be described as triangular:

Depending on the guarantee’s conditions for payment, a demand for payment can put the guarantor in a difficult position where it is unclear whether the guarantor is obligated to pay or not. The documentary guarantee overcomes this problem through its twofold independence; it is completely separate from the underlying contract and it is independent of the instruction relationship pursuant to which the guarantee was issued. Documentary guarantees... (More)
In international sales, it is often difficult to assess the solvency of the other party. In order to overbridge this problem and ensure due performance, a professional guarantor is commonly engaged. In its basic form, the legal relationships surrounding a guarantee can be described as triangular:

Depending on the guarantee’s conditions for payment, a demand for payment can put the guarantor in a difficult position where it is unclear whether the guarantor is obligated to pay or not. The documentary guarantee overcomes this problem through its twofold independence; it is completely separate from the underlying contract and it is independent of the instruction relationship pursuant to which the guarantee was issued. Documentary guarantees require, as a condition for payment, the presentation of documents alone. No proof of breach is required and objections relating to the underlying contract do not affect the guarantor’s payment obligation. It is therefore easier for the guarantor to assess whether an obligation to pay has arisen under a documentary guarantee than under a suretyship. As a consequence however, the beneficiary may receive an amount that exceeds the beneficiary’s actual loss.

One objective of this thesis is to distinguish documentary guarantees from suretyships; what necessary conditions must be met in order for an undertaking to be classified as a documentary guarantee and a suretyship respectively. The other objective of this thesis relates to the situation that the beneficiary of a documentary guarantee pursuant to a justified demand has received an amount exceeding his actual loss. Is the beneficiary bound to repay the surplus and if so, which party is entitled to recover the surplus? The Swedish sources of law regarding documentary guarantees are very limited and the documentary guarantee is hence approached from a de lege ferenda perspective. International sources of law provide arguments and inspiration in this respect. Regarding suretyship, the Swedish sources of law are numerous allowing this part to be carried out in a traditional legal dogmatic method.

The study finds that the necessary conditions that have to be met in order for an undertaking to be classified as a suretyship comprise of a guarantee which objective is that the guarantor shall satisfy a specified performance insofar as the debtor (other) has not. A documentary guarantee can be defined as a guarantee, which contains documentary conditions and contains neither accessory nor imponderable conditions.

A beneficiary’s demand for payment is justified if the documentary conditions are fulfilled and the risk factor enclosed in the purpose of the guarantee has occurred or the demand was made in consistency with the purpose of the guarantee. The final chapter of the study analyses how a surplus in the hands of the beneficiary following a justified demand is to be dealt with.

If the beneficiary is entitled to keep the surplus he will make a windfall gain, and this cannot be tolerated. Given the fact that a guarantor is entitled to be reimbursed by the account party since the demand for payment was justified, no party will make a windfall gain if the account party is entitled to the surplus. For good reasons, the preferred view in English law is thus that the beneficiary is bound to repay the surplus to the account party rather than the guarantor. The legal route adopted by English courts is that there is a term implied into the underlying contract to this effect. (Less)
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author
Eriksson, Hampus LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Documentary guarantees and suretyships - claims for repayment under a documentary guarantee in particular
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Bankrätt, Banking law, Documentary guarantee, Dokumentvillkorade garantier, Demand-garantier, Demand-guarantees, Borgen, Suretyship, Performance bond.
language
Swedish
id
8513991
date added to LUP
2016-01-27 14:37:31
date last changed
2016-01-27 14:37:31
@misc{8513991,
  abstract     = {In international sales, it is often difficult to assess the solvency of the other party. In order to overbridge this problem and ensure due performance, a professional guarantor is commonly engaged. In its basic form, the legal relationships surrounding a guarantee can be described as triangular:

Depending on the guarantee’s conditions for payment, a demand for payment can put the guarantor in a difficult position where it is unclear whether the guarantor is obligated to pay or not. The documentary guarantee overcomes this problem through its twofold independence; it is completely separate from the underlying contract and it is independent of the instruction relationship pursuant to which the guarantee was issued. Documentary guarantees require, as a condition for payment, the presentation of documents alone. No proof of breach is required and objections relating to the underlying contract do not affect the guarantor’s payment obligation. It is therefore easier for the guarantor to assess whether an obligation to pay has arisen under a documentary guarantee than under a suretyship. As a consequence however, the beneficiary may receive an amount that exceeds the beneficiary’s actual loss.

One objective of this thesis is to distinguish documentary guarantees from suretyships; what necessary conditions must be met in order for an undertaking to be classified as a documentary guarantee and a suretyship respectively. The other objective of this thesis relates to the situation that the beneficiary of a documentary guarantee pursuant to a justified demand has received an amount exceeding his actual loss. Is the beneficiary bound to repay the surplus and if so, which party is entitled to recover the surplus? The Swedish sources of law regarding documentary guarantees are very limited and the documentary guarantee is hence approached from a de lege ferenda perspective. International sources of law provide arguments and inspiration in this respect. Regarding suretyship, the Swedish sources of law are numerous allowing this part to be carried out in a traditional legal dogmatic method.

The study finds that the necessary conditions that have to be met in order for an undertaking to be classified as a suretyship comprise of a guarantee which objective is that the guarantor shall satisfy a specified performance insofar as the debtor (other) has not. A documentary guarantee can be defined as a guarantee, which contains documentary conditions and contains neither accessory nor imponderable conditions. 

A beneficiary’s demand for payment is justified if the documentary conditions are fulfilled and the risk factor enclosed in the purpose of the guarantee has occurred or the demand was made in consistency with the purpose of the guarantee. The final chapter of the study analyses how a surplus in the hands of the beneficiary following a justified demand is to be dealt with.

If the beneficiary is entitled to keep the surplus he will make a windfall gain, and this cannot be tolerated. Given the fact that a guarantor is entitled to be reimbursed by the account party since the demand for payment was justified, no party will make a windfall gain if the account party is entitled to the surplus. For good reasons, the preferred view in English law is thus that the beneficiary is bound to repay the surplus to the account party rather than the guarantor. The legal route adopted by English courts is that there is a term implied into the underlying contract to this effect.},
  author       = {Eriksson, Hampus},
  keyword      = {Bankrätt,Banking law,Documentary guarantee,Dokumentvillkorade garantier,Demand-garantier,Demand-guarantees,Borgen,Suretyship,Performance bond.},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Dokumentvillkorade garantier och borgen - särskilt om återkrav i samband med dokumentvillkorade garantier},
  year         = {2016},
}