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Rätten till kännedom om sitt ursprung - en överordnad princip?

Emaus Günzel, Agnes LU (2015) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats har till syfte att undersöka vilken rätt adoptiv- och donatorbarn har till information om sitt ursprung, hur denna rätt tar sig uttryck, och vilka principer som finns bakom regleringen. Rättigheten finns reglerad i folkrättslig (bl.a. FN: s konvention om barnets rättigheter) såväl som nationell lagstiftning. Den innebär en rätt till information om
tillkomstsättet och en rätt till information om barnet genetiska ursprung.

Svensk lagstiftningen stadgar att donatorbarn har rätt till information om sitt ursprung. På grund av detta sparas alla journaler som innehåller information om den assisterade befruktningen och donatorn i minst 70 år. Barnet saknar
möjlighet att se journalerna till dess att det har uppnått en... (More)
Denna uppsats har till syfte att undersöka vilken rätt adoptiv- och donatorbarn har till information om sitt ursprung, hur denna rätt tar sig uttryck, och vilka principer som finns bakom regleringen. Rättigheten finns reglerad i folkrättslig (bl.a. FN: s konvention om barnets rättigheter) såväl som nationell lagstiftning. Den innebär en rätt till information om
tillkomstsättet och en rätt till information om barnet genetiska ursprung.

Svensk lagstiftningen stadgar att donatorbarn har rätt till information om sitt ursprung. På grund av detta sparas alla journaler som innehåller information om den assisterade befruktningen och donatorn i minst 70 år. Barnet saknar
möjlighet att se journalerna till dess att det har uppnått en "tillräcklig mognad". Barn i de övre tonåren har i allmänhet uppnått en tillräcklig mognad, men om barnet är omyndigt måste det genomgå ett samtal, i vilket det avgörs om barnet är tillräckligt moget för att hantera informationen i journalerna. Vid samtalet får barnet en möjlighet till hjälp att bearbeta de
känslomässiga problem som kan uppstå under sökandet. Är donatorbarnet myndigt antas det att denne har uppnått en tillräcklig mognad. Donatorbarnet är den enda som har rätt att få tillgång till journalerna och dess rättsliga föräldrar saknar helt rätten att ta del av handlingarna. Socialnämnden är skyldig att hjälpa barn som inte vet om de har tillkommit
genom assisterad befruktning eller ej. De kan också, om barnet så önskar, bistå barnet när det vill kontakta den genetiska föräldern.

Adoptivbarn ges inte i svensk lagtext någon rätt till kännedom om sitt ursprung. Detta regleras dock i förarbetena. När ett barn har adopterats registreras uppgifter om de rättsliga samt de biologiska föräldrarna i folkbokföringen. Informationen i folkbokföringen omfattas normalt av offentlighetsprincipen, men kan i vissa fall vara sekretessbelagd. Adoptivbarnet har dock alltid möjlighet att få ut informationen från folkbokföringen och kan därför få tillgång till information om adoptionen.

Socialtjänsten erbjuder stöd för adoptivbarnet i samband med att det söker sitt ursprung. Stödet erbjuds oberoende av barnets ålder och därmed också till myndiga adoptivbarn. Socialtjänsten ska informera adoptivbarnet om vart hon eller han kan vända sig för att få mer information om sitt ursprung. MFoF är en myndighet som bland annat erbjuder råd och hjälp i barnets sökande efter sina biologiska föräldrar. När ett adoptivbarn får ta del av uppgifter om adoptionen bör socialnämnden erbjuda denne råd och stöd. Detta ska erbjudas även om uppgifterna av någon anledning inte kan lämnas
ut.

Innan en assisterad befruktning kan genomföras ska en läkare pröva om det är lämpligt att en behandling äger rum. Adoptivföräldrar behöver genomgå en medgivandeutredning samt en föräldrautbildning innan en adoption kan ske. Syftet med dessa moment är bland annat är att undersöka föräldrarnas inställning till, samt informera föräldrarna om, vikten av öppenhet kring barnets ursprung. Detta eftersom rättigheten anses utgöra en del av barnets bästa. Det anses att informationen om ursprunget bäst tas emot av barnet när det kommer från föräldrarna. De rättsliga föräldrarna till adoptiv- eller donatorbarn har inte någon skyldighet att informera sitt barn om dess ursprung. Lagstiftaren uppmuntrar dock föräldrarna att informera sina barn så att det till fullo kan utnyttja sina rättigheter. Det problematiska är att
ingen i själva verket har en sådan upplysningsplikt. Lagstiftningen blir därmed problematisk - inget barn kan utöva sin ovillkorliga rätt till information om sitt ursprung, om det först inte vet att det är adopterat eller har tillkommit genom assisterad befruktning.

Den svenska lagstiftaren uppfyller inte till fullo sina skyldigheter enligt barnkonventionen och det kan ifrågasättas om lagstiftaren hade barnets bästa i åtanke vid lagstiftningens införande, eller om föräldrarnas rätt till respekt för privat- och familjelivet i själva verket är den överordnade principen. (Less)
Abstract
The aim of this thesis has been to examine what rights Swedish adoptees and donor offsprings have to information about his or her origins, how this right is manifested and the principles that may have influenced the current legislation. A person’s right to information about his or her origins is a right enacted in both international (e.g. the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) and Swedish national law. The right gives the child a right not only to know about the adoption or the assisted reproduction but a right to information about its biological or genetic parents.

The Swedish legislation states that donor offsprings have a right to information about its origins. Because of this, all medical records containing information about... (More)
The aim of this thesis has been to examine what rights Swedish adoptees and donor offsprings have to information about his or her origins, how this right is manifested and the principles that may have influenced the current legislation. A person’s right to information about his or her origins is a right enacted in both international (e.g. the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) and Swedish national law. The right gives the child a right not only to know about the adoption or the assisted reproduction but a right to information about its biological or genetic parents.

The Swedish legislation states that donor offsprings have a right to information about its origins. Because of this, all medical records containing information about the assisted reproduction as well as of the donor must be saved for at least 70 years. The medical records are saved for the donor offspring, but the child is not allowed to see them until it is “sufficiently mature”. Donor offsprings under the age of 18 will have to be evaluated by the Social Welfare Board in order to establish if the child is sufficiently mature to know the identity of the donor or not. Sufficient maturity can generally be fulfilled only once the child has reached its upper teens. During this evaluation the child will also be given an opportunity to help process the emotional problems that might occur during the search. Adult donor offsprings are presumed to having reached a sufficient maturity. The donor offspring is the only one who has a right to access the medical records and its legal parents are not entitled to see the documents. The social services are required to assist children who do not know if they are a result of assisted reproduction or not. They may also, if the child wishes so, assist the child once it wishes to contact the genetic parent.

Adoptees are not given the right to information about its origins by the Swedish law but by the travaux préparatoires. When a child has been adopted information concerning the legal parents as well as the biological parents are registered by the national registration office. The information held by the national registration office is generally public, but can in some cases be considered confidential. The adoptee has an easy access to the register and can contact the registration office to gain information regarding the adoption or its biological parents. The social services are required to support and counsel the adoptee once it is looking for information regarding its origins. This is regardless of the age of the child, and adult adoptees do have the same rights as the underage child. The social services are also required to help inform the child on where it should turn to for more information in its search for its origins. The Swedish Intercountry Adoptions Authority offers help and advice in the search. Once documents regarding the adoption is handed out to the adoptee, the social services shall offer advice and support.

Prospective parents have to go through counselling prior to the assisted reproduction treatment. Adoptive parents do have to undergo an investigation as well as a parental course prior to the adoption. The objective of the counselling and course is to equip the parents about, among other things, the importance of openness, which is seen to be in the best interests of the child.

It is believed that information about one’s origin is best received when it comes from the parents. The legal parents of adoptees or donor offsprings do not have a duty to inform the child of its origins and the legislator only encourages the parents to inform their child so it fully can make use of its rights. What is problematic is that no one, in fact, has such a duty. This makes the legislation problematic – no child will be able to exercise their unconditional right to information about their origins if they do not know that they are adoptees or donor offsprings.

The Swedish legislation does not completely meet the its obligations under the CRC and it can be questioned whether the legislator had the best interest of the child in mind once writing the legislation, or if it in fact considered the parents right to respect to private and family life being a superior right. (Less)
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author
Emaus Günzel, Agnes LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The right to know one's origins - a superior principle?
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
familjerätt, barnrätt, family law, childrens rights, ursprung, origins, assisterad befruktning, IVF, adoption, CRC, barnkonventionen, EKMR, ECHR, normativa grundmönster, kännedom om sitt ursprung, rätten till kännedom om sitt ursprung, rättighet, FN, UN, donatorbarn, adoptivbarn
language
Swedish
id
8515194
date added to LUP
2016-01-27 14:29:35
date last changed
2016-01-27 14:29:35
@misc{8515194,
  abstract     = {The aim of this thesis has been to examine what rights Swedish adoptees and donor offsprings have to information about his or her origins, how this right is manifested and the principles that may have influenced the current legislation. A person’s right to information about his or her origins is a right enacted in both international (e.g. the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) and Swedish national law. The right gives the child a right not only to know about the adoption or the assisted reproduction but a right to information about its biological or genetic parents. 

The Swedish legislation states that donor offsprings have a right to information about its origins. Because of this, all medical records containing information about the assisted reproduction as well as of the donor must be saved for at least 70 years. The medical records are saved for the donor offspring, but the child is not allowed to see them until it is “sufficiently mature”. Donor offsprings under the age of 18 will have to be evaluated by the Social Welfare Board in order to establish if the child is sufficiently mature to know the identity of the donor or not. Sufficient maturity can generally be fulfilled only once the child has reached its upper teens. During this evaluation the child will also be given an opportunity to help process the emotional problems that might occur during the search. Adult donor offsprings are presumed to having reached a sufficient maturity. The donor offspring is the only one who has a right to access the medical records and its legal parents are not entitled to see the documents. The social services are required to assist children who do not know if they are a result of assisted reproduction or not. They may also, if the child wishes so, assist the child once it wishes to contact the genetic parent.

Adoptees are not given the right to information about its origins by the Swedish law but by the travaux préparatoires. When a child has been adopted information concerning the legal parents as well as the biological parents are registered by the national registration office. The information held by the national registration office is generally public, but can in some cases be considered confidential. The adoptee has an easy access to the register and can contact the registration office to gain information regarding the adoption or its biological parents. The social services are required to support and counsel the adoptee once it is looking for information regarding its origins. This is regardless of the age of the child, and adult adoptees do have the same rights as the underage child. The social services are also required to help inform the child on where it should turn to for more information in its search for its origins. The Swedish Intercountry Adoptions Authority offers help and advice in the search. Once documents regarding the adoption is handed out to the adoptee, the social services shall offer advice and support. 

Prospective parents have to go through counselling prior to the assisted reproduction treatment. Adoptive parents do have to undergo an investigation as well as a parental course prior to the adoption. The objective of the counselling and course is to equip the parents about, among other things, the importance of openness, which is seen to be in the best interests of the child. 

It is believed that information about one’s origin is best received when it comes from the parents. The legal parents of adoptees or donor offsprings do not have a duty to inform the child of its origins and the legislator only encourages the parents to inform their child so it fully can make use of its rights. What is problematic is that no one, in fact, has such a duty. This makes the legislation problematic – no child will be able to exercise their unconditional right to information about their origins if they do not know that they are adoptees or donor offsprings.

The Swedish legislation does not completely meet the its obligations under the CRC and it can be questioned whether the legislator had the best interest of the child in mind once writing the legislation, or if it in fact considered the parents right to respect to private and family life being a superior right.},
  author       = {Emaus Günzel, Agnes},
  keyword      = {familjerätt,barnrätt,family law,childrens rights,ursprung,origins,assisterad befruktning,IVF,adoption,CRC,barnkonventionen,EKMR,ECHR,normativa grundmönster,kännedom om sitt ursprung,rätten till kännedom om sitt ursprung,rättighet,FN,UN,donatorbarn,adoptivbarn},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Rätten till kännedom om sitt ursprung - en överordnad princip?},
  year         = {2015},
}