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Påföljden för mord - 2014 års lagändring ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv

Ellström, William LU (2016) LAGF03 20161
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
Until 2009 the punishment for murder was ten years or life imprisonment. In 2009 there was an amendment of the law, which expanded the area where the court could convict someone to a fixed sentence; ten years as the lowest and eighteen years a maximum. In NJA 2013 p. 376 the Supreme Court ruled that the basic assumption for a murder without aggravating- or extenuating circumstances was a fourteen years imprisonment. The year after there was another amendment of the law. Its purpose was to make life imprisonment the normal sentence for murder. Many of the consultation bodies and the Council of Legislation were critical of the amendment. Partly because of the way the amendment was designed, partly because the consultation bodies questioned... (More)
Until 2009 the punishment for murder was ten years or life imprisonment. In 2009 there was an amendment of the law, which expanded the area where the court could convict someone to a fixed sentence; ten years as the lowest and eighteen years a maximum. In NJA 2013 p. 376 the Supreme Court ruled that the basic assumption for a murder without aggravating- or extenuating circumstances was a fourteen years imprisonment. The year after there was another amendment of the law. Its purpose was to make life imprisonment the normal sentence for murder. Many of the consultation bodies and the Council of Legislation were critical of the amendment. Partly because of the way the amendment was designed, partly because the consultation bodies questioned the need for a new amendment in the light of 2009 amendment of the law. In case nr B 4653-15 the Supreme Court ruled that the amendment made 2014 did not change legal position created by the amendment made 2009 and NJA 2013 p. 376. This essay aims to describe the amendments made 2009 and 2014 from a rule of law perspective. This essay also presents theories of criminal justice, which have been important in the evolution of Swedish criminal law. These theories can be divided into two groups; absolute and relative theories. Absolute theories basically use punishment as revenge for the committed crime. Relative theories use punishment to achieve a certain goal and have a purpose. The relative theories can also be split into groups: deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation. The criminal code from 1965 was very influenced by the theories of rehabilitation. 1989 there was a big amendment of the criminal code regarding the sanctions. The principles of proportionality, equality before the law and rule of law became the most important principles. The different theories have different impacts depending on which level in the criminal procedure that’s being discussed. This essay shares the Supreme Courts opinion that the amendment of 2014 does not have the effect as the government expected due the actual wording of the amendment. The essay also discuss the fact that the government through the amendment of 2014 moves away from the principle of proportionality and rely their argument in the symbolic values of life imprisonment and concludes that the amendment may be sign that the Swedish criminal law is becoming more political. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Fram till 2009 kunde domstolen vid brottet mord döma till tio års fängelse eller till livstids fängelse. 2009 ändrades straffskalan och möjliggjorde att domstolen kunde döma ut ett tidsbegränsat straff på lägst tio år och högst arton år. I NJA 2013 s. 376 uttalade HD att utgångspunkten för ett mord utan förmildrande eller försvårande omständigheter skulle vara fängelse i fjorton år. Redan året efter trädde en lagändring ikraft vars syfte var att göra normalpåföljden för mord till livstids fängelse. Flera remissinstanser och Lagrådet var kritiska till dels lagtextens utformning och dels behovet av att ändra i straffskalan så snart efter 2009 års reform. Som ett brev på posten slog HD i Mål nr B 4653-15 fast att 2014 års lagändring inte... (More)
Fram till 2009 kunde domstolen vid brottet mord döma till tio års fängelse eller till livstids fängelse. 2009 ändrades straffskalan och möjliggjorde att domstolen kunde döma ut ett tidsbegränsat straff på lägst tio år och högst arton år. I NJA 2013 s. 376 uttalade HD att utgångspunkten för ett mord utan förmildrande eller försvårande omständigheter skulle vara fängelse i fjorton år. Redan året efter trädde en lagändring ikraft vars syfte var att göra normalpåföljden för mord till livstids fängelse. Flera remissinstanser och Lagrådet var kritiska till dels lagtextens utformning och dels behovet av att ändra i straffskalan så snart efter 2009 års reform. Som ett brev på posten slog HD i Mål nr B 4653-15 fast att 2014 års lagändring inte ändrade rättsläget som uppstått genom 2009 års reform och den efterföljande praxisen. Denna uppsats redogör för de olika straffrättsreformernas innebörd och hur 2014 års lagändring står sig ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv. För att ge dagens händelser en plats i ett större sammanhang så redogörs även för olika straffteoriers påverkan av svensk straffrätt. En straffteori ger uttryck för varför den som begår ett brott straffas. Straffteorierna delas upp i absoluta och relativa teorier. De absoluta teorierna straffar för att brottslingen begått ett brott och de relativa teorierna kan sägas använda straffet som ett medel för ett socialt ändamål. De relativa teorierna delas upp i allmänpreventiva och individualpreventiva teorier. Under 1900-talet har de relativa teorierna haft ett stort genomslag i svensk rätt främst den invidividalpreventiva behandlingstanken som präglade BrB vid dess ikraftträdande. 1989 skedde påföljdsreformen som ändrade riktning på den behandlingsorienterade straffrätten. Ledstjärnorna blev proportionalitet, likhet inför lagen och förutsebarhet. Dock är genomslaget av de olika teorierna olika stort beroende på vilken straffrättslig nivå som aktualiseras vilket uppsatsen redogör för.
Uppsatsen delar HD:s uppfattning att 2014 års lagändring inte ska ha den åsyftade effekten som förespråkas enligt förarbetena utifrån lagtextens lydelse. Uppsatsen försöker även problematisera kring att regeringen går i en annan riktning genom 2014 år lagändring genom att ge minskad betydelse åt proportionalitetstankar och istället hänvisar till att livstidsstraffet har ett betydande symbolvärde. Uppsatsen sluter sig till att 2014 år lagändring kan vara ett uttryck för att straffrätten blivit ett redskap för att plocka politiska poäng. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ellström, William LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20161
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, straffteori, mord, påföljd
language
Swedish
id
8873895
date added to LUP
2016-07-03 21:31:25
date last changed
2016-07-03 21:31:25
@misc{8873895,
  abstract     = {Until 2009 the punishment for murder was ten years or life imprisonment. In 2009 there was an amendment of the law, which expanded the area where the court could convict someone to a fixed sentence; ten years as the lowest and eighteen years a maximum. In NJA 2013 p. 376 the Supreme Court ruled that the basic assumption for a murder without aggravating- or extenuating circumstances was a fourteen years imprisonment. The year after there was another amendment of the law. Its purpose was to make life imprisonment the normal sentence for murder. Many of the consultation bodies and the Council of Legislation were critical of the amendment. Partly because of the way the amendment was designed, partly because the consultation bodies questioned the need for a new amendment in the light of 2009 amendment of the law. In case nr B 4653-15 the Supreme Court ruled that the amendment made 2014 did not change legal position created by the amendment made 2009 and NJA 2013 p. 376. This essay aims to describe the amendments made 2009 and 2014 from a rule of law perspective. This essay also presents theories of criminal justice, which have been important in the evolution of Swedish criminal law. These theories can be divided into two groups; absolute and relative theories. Absolute theories basically use punishment as revenge for the committed crime. Relative theories use punishment to achieve a certain goal and have a purpose. The relative theories can also be split into groups: deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation. The criminal code from 1965 was very influenced by the theories of rehabilitation. 1989 there was a big amendment of the criminal code regarding the sanctions. The principles of proportionality, equality before the law and rule of law became the most important principles. The different theories have different impacts depending on which level in the criminal procedure that’s being discussed. This essay shares the Supreme Courts opinion that the amendment of 2014 does not have the effect as the government expected due the actual wording of the amendment. The essay also discuss the fact that the government through the amendment of 2014 moves away from the principle of proportionality and rely their argument in the symbolic values of life imprisonment and concludes that the amendment may be sign that the Swedish criminal law is becoming more political.},
  author       = {Ellström, William},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,straffteori,mord,påföljd},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Påföljden för mord - 2014 års lagändring ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv},
  year         = {2016},
}