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Att skjuta eller inte skjuta varg – Är den svenska licensjakten förenlig med gällande rätt?

Johnsson, Frida LU (2016) LAGF03 20161
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Varg har naturligt förekommit i hela landet genom historien men arten försvann nästan helt ur den svenska faunan under 1900-talet. Nu har vargen återigen etablerat sig i Sverige.

Förutsättningarna för att förvalta varg genom jakt, så kallad licensjakt, är strikt begränsat. De bestämmelser som reglerar möjligheten till licensjakt på varg grundar sig på EU:s art- och habitatdirektiv, AHD. Dessa har framförallt implementerats i jaktlagstiftningen men även i artskyddsförordningen, ASF. Syftet med AHD är att säkerställa den biologiska mångfalden. Enligt AHD anses vargen vara en strikt skyddad art som enligt huvudregeln inte avsiktligt får dödas. Enligt undantaget får licensjakt beslutas och vargen dödas endast när någon annan lämplig... (More)
Varg har naturligt förekommit i hela landet genom historien men arten försvann nästan helt ur den svenska faunan under 1900-talet. Nu har vargen återigen etablerat sig i Sverige.

Förutsättningarna för att förvalta varg genom jakt, så kallad licensjakt, är strikt begränsat. De bestämmelser som reglerar möjligheten till licensjakt på varg grundar sig på EU:s art- och habitatdirektiv, AHD. Dessa har framförallt implementerats i jaktlagstiftningen men även i artskyddsförordningen, ASF. Syftet med AHD är att säkerställa den biologiska mångfalden. Enligt AHD anses vargen vara en strikt skyddad art som enligt huvudregeln inte avsiktligt får dödas. Enligt undantaget får licensjakt beslutas och vargen dödas endast när någon annan lämplig lösning inte finns och dödandet inte försvårar upprätthållandet av den gynnsam bevarandestatus. Dessutom måste licensjakten uppfylla vissa ytterligare krav i artikel 16.1 e AHD.

Trots de stränga kraven för beviljandet av licensjakt, har beslut om denna jakt fattats varje år sedan 2010 med undantag för 2012. Förvaltningsrätterna och kammarrätterna har prövat besluten om licensjakt vid tre tillfällen och vid samtliga tillfällen kommit fram till att besluten inte varit förenliga med gällande rätt, då besluten varken varit ändamålsenliga eller proportionerliga. Genom ett kompletterande motiverat yttrande 2015 förklarade EU-kommissionen att de inte ansåg att den svenska licensjakten på varg varit förenlig med bestämmelserna i AHD. Regeringen höll inte med denna bedömning i sitt svar till kommissionen. I uppsatsen framhålls det starka miljörättsliga skyddet som vargen erhållit till följd av EU-rätten. I analysen ifrågasätts därmed om myndigheterna i tillräckligt stor omfattning har beaktat vargens strikta skyddsvärde vid beslut om licensjakt eller om den svenska licensjakten sker i strid med gällande rätt. (Less)
Abstract
Wolves have occurred naturally across the country throughout history but disappeared almost completely from the Swedish fauna during the 20th century. Now the wolf has again established itself in Sweden. The prerequisites for managing wolves through hunting, known as licensed hunting, are strictly restricted. The provisions regulating the possibility to licensed hunting of wolves are based on the EU Habitats Directive. These provisions have primarily been implemented in the Swedish hunting legislation, but also in a special regulation for species protection. The purpose of the Habitats Directive is to safeguard biodiversity. According to the Habitats Directive the wolf should be considered a strictly protected species and therefore the... (More)
Wolves have occurred naturally across the country throughout history but disappeared almost completely from the Swedish fauna during the 20th century. Now the wolf has again established itself in Sweden. The prerequisites for managing wolves through hunting, known as licensed hunting, are strictly restricted. The provisions regulating the possibility to licensed hunting of wolves are based on the EU Habitats Directive. These provisions have primarily been implemented in the Swedish hunting legislation, but also in a special regulation for species protection. The purpose of the Habitats Directive is to safeguard biodiversity. According to the Habitats Directive the wolf should be considered a strictly protected species and therefore the cardinal rule prohibits hunting and killing of wolves. Exceptions to the cardinal rule are allowed, but only under strictly defined conditions. These require that no other alternative than hunting is available and that the hunt does not hinder the maintenance of favorable conservation status of the species. Furthermore, all the specified requirement of Article 16.1 e in the Directive must be fulfilled for a legal application of licensed hunting to be granted.

In spite of the stringent requirements for licensed hunting, decisions on exceptions have been made every year since 2010 except for 2012. The Swedish Administrative Courts have tried the decisions on licensed hunting at three occasions. In all three cases the Courts concluded that the decisions were taken in violation of the law. The decisions were neither appropriate nor proportionate. In an additional reasoned opinion in 2015, the Commission clarified that the Swedish licensed hunting of wolves has not been in conformity with the regulation of the Habitat Directive. The Swedish government did not agree to this in their reply. This essay highlights the strong environmental legal protection that the wolf receives as a result of EU law. The analysis questions whether the authorities have, to a large enough extent, considered the wolf's strict protective value when deciding on licensed hunting, and thus violated the applicable law. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Johnsson, Frida LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20161
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Förvaltningsrätt, EU-rätt, licensjakt, varg.
language
Swedish
id
8874058
date added to LUP
2016-07-04 09:11:43
date last changed
2016-07-04 09:11:43
@misc{8874058,
  abstract     = {Wolves have occurred naturally across the country throughout history but disappeared almost completely from the Swedish fauna during the 20th century. Now the wolf has again established itself in Sweden. The prerequisites for managing wolves through hunting, known as licensed hunting, are strictly restricted. The provisions regulating the possibility to licensed hunting of wolves are based on the EU Habitats Directive. These provisions have primarily been implemented in the Swedish hunting legislation, but also in a special regulation for species protection. The purpose of the Habitats Directive is to safeguard biodiversity. According to the Habitats Directive the wolf should be considered a strictly protected species and therefore the cardinal rule prohibits hunting and killing of wolves. Exceptions to the cardinal rule are allowed, but only under strictly defined conditions. These require that no other alternative than hunting is available and that the hunt does not hinder the maintenance of favorable conservation status of the species. Furthermore, all the specified requirement of Article 16.1 e in the Directive must be fulfilled for a legal application of licensed hunting to be granted. 

In spite of the stringent requirements for licensed hunting, decisions on exceptions have been made every year since 2010 except for 2012. The Swedish Administrative Courts have tried the decisions on licensed hunting at three occasions. In all three cases the Courts concluded that the decisions were taken in violation of the law. The decisions were neither appropriate nor proportionate. In an additional reasoned opinion in 2015, the Commission clarified that the Swedish licensed hunting of wolves has not been in conformity with the regulation of the Habitat Directive. The Swedish government did not agree to this in their reply. This essay highlights the strong environmental legal protection that the wolf receives as a result of EU law. The analysis questions whether the authorities have, to a large enough extent, considered the wolf's strict protective value when deciding on licensed hunting, and thus violated the applicable law.},
  author       = {Johnsson, Frida},
  keyword      = {Förvaltningsrätt,EU-rätt,licensjakt,varg.},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Att skjuta eller inte skjuta varg – Är den svenska licensjakten förenlig med gällande rätt?},
  year         = {2016},
}