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Vad kallas det när bomberna faller? En studie av det straffrättsliga terrorismbegreppet mot bakgrund av legalitetsprincipen

Lindmark, Gustav LU (2016) JURM02 20161
Department of Law
Abstract
Although terrorism poses a growing threat, few can present a precise and all encompassing definition of the term. Internationally, as well as academically, there is disagreement about which acts should be subjected by the term. Swedish criminal law similarly lacks a definition; instead numerous terrorist acts are criminalized under separate forms of crimes.

The purpose of this essay is to investigate the meaning of terrorism in Swedish criminal law. It is based on a right dogmatic approach and has its theoretical basis in the principle of legality. Firstly, the definitional problem is examined, as well as some definitions suggested in the literature. A number of objective characteristics are identified: terrorism is the use of violence... (More)
Although terrorism poses a growing threat, few can present a precise and all encompassing definition of the term. Internationally, as well as academically, there is disagreement about which acts should be subjected by the term. Swedish criminal law similarly lacks a definition; instead numerous terrorist acts are criminalized under separate forms of crimes.

The purpose of this essay is to investigate the meaning of terrorism in Swedish criminal law. It is based on a right dogmatic approach and has its theoretical basis in the principle of legality. Firstly, the definitional problem is examined, as well as some definitions suggested in the literature. A number of objective characteristics are identified: terrorism is the use of violence to attain a political aim, where fear is used as a tool to achieve psychological effects. The precise limits of the scope, however, are controversial.

If these characteristics describe terrorism, the criminal definition indicates to what extent such acts are prohibited. Swedish counter-terrorism legislation is comprised of three special laws, wherein terrorist acts are sorted under terrorist crimes and particularly serious crimes. Given the above mentioned character traits, the terrorist crime should be understood as terrorism in Swedish criminal law, whilst particularly serious crimes represents terrorist acts which are prohibited to assist, including terrorist crimes.

Several legality issues are pointed out. Firstly, it is unclear what constitutes a terrorist crime. Court praxis in the area is highly limited, and legislative history merely contains general formulations to exemplify varying terrorist acts. Furthermore, the regulations of terrorist crimes and particularly serious crimes are highly complex. The latter seems most problematic since it refers to several legal norms found in international instruments. Lastly, the separation of terms causes great confusion, as it is difficult to deduce their interrelation only by the wording of the laws.

As a whole, the counter-terrorism legislation should be regarded as highly questionable from a point of view of legality. To achieve greater foreseeability, the author advocates that the regulations should be implemented into a separate chapter of the Swedish penal code. In addition, the terrorist crime should either be titled terrorism, or expressly mentioned as the collection of acts that comprises terrorism. Lastly, the acts subjected by the financial and recruitment laws should be titled lateral terrorist acts, or, alternatively, not be titled as a separate form of crime, and the term particularly serious crimes repealed. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Även om terrorism utgör ett växande problem kan få presentera en precis och heltäckande förklaring av dess innebörd. I en internationell såväl som akademisk kontext råder oenighet om vilka handlingar som bör omfattas. I svensk straffrätt saknas likaså en definition av begreppet; istället straffbeläggs ett stort antal terroristhandlingar under skilda brottstyper.

Uppsatsens syfte är att utreda vad som avses med terrorism i svensk straffrätt. Framställningen utgår ifrån en rättsdogmatisk metod och har sin teoretiska utgångspunkt i legalitetsprincipen. Först behandlas den definitionsproblematik som präglar terrorismbegreppet, samt ett antal definitioner som har presenterats i forskningen. Ett antal objektiva särdrag utpekas: terrorism är... (More)
Även om terrorism utgör ett växande problem kan få presentera en precis och heltäckande förklaring av dess innebörd. I en internationell såväl som akademisk kontext råder oenighet om vilka handlingar som bör omfattas. I svensk straffrätt saknas likaså en definition av begreppet; istället straffbeläggs ett stort antal terroristhandlingar under skilda brottstyper.

Uppsatsens syfte är att utreda vad som avses med terrorism i svensk straffrätt. Framställningen utgår ifrån en rättsdogmatisk metod och har sin teoretiska utgångspunkt i legalitetsprincipen. Först behandlas den definitionsproblematik som präglar terrorismbegreppet, samt ett antal definitioner som har presenterats i forskningen. Ett antal objektiva särdrag utpekas: terrorism är bruket av våld i politiskt syfte där rädsla används som verktyg för att åstadkomma psykologiska effekter. De närmare gränserna för begreppets omfattning är emellertid omdebatterade.

Om denna karaktäristik utmärker terrorism anger den straffrättsliga definitionen i vad mån sådana handlingar är förbjudna. Svensk antiterrorlagstiftning utgörs av tre speciallagar där terroristhandlingar sorteras under brottstyperna terroristbrott och särskilt allvarlig brottslighet. Mot bakgrund av ovanstående karaktärsdrag borde terroristbrottet förstås som terrorism i svensk straffrätt medan särskilt allvarlig brottslighet anger terroristhandlingar som är förbjudna att understödja, däribland terroristbrott.

Flera legalitetsproblem uppmärksammas. Först och främst är det oklart vad som de facto konstituerar ett terroristbrott. Domstolspraxis på området är ytterst begränsad och i förarbetena används tämligen öppna formuleringar för att exemplifiera handlingar som omfattas. Vidare är bestämmelserna om terroristbrott och särskilt allvarlig brottslighet både svåröverblickbara och komplexa till följd av deras blankettkaraktär. Den sistnämnda ter sig mest problematisk eftersom den hänvisar till ett betydande antal utfyllnadsnormer i internationella instrument. Slutligen ger begreppsindelningen upphov till stor förvirring då det enbart utifrån lagtextens lydelse är svårt att härleda begreppens inbördes förhållande.

I sin helhet skall antiterrorlagstiftningen betraktas som ytterst tveksam ur ett legalitetshänseende. För att uppnå mer förutsebarhet i regelverket förespråkar författaren att antiterrorlagstiftningen implementeras i ett separat kapitel i brottsbalken. Därtill bör terroristbrottet antingen benämnas terrorism eller genom en definitionsbestämmelse anges vara den samling av brott som utgör terrorism. Slutligen bör de handlingar som straffbeläggs i finansierings- och rekryteringslagarna benämnas sidoställda terroristhandlingar, alternativt inte benämnas som en egen brottstyp, och begreppet särskilt allvarlig brottslighet avskaffas. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lindmark, Gustav LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
What is it called when the bombs are falling?
course
JURM02 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Särskilt allvarlig brottslighet, Terroristbrott, Terrorism, Straffrätt, Legalitetsprincipen, Terroristbrottslagen, Finansieringslagen, Rekryteringslagen, Terrorist, Bomber
language
Swedish
id
8874291
date added to LUP
2016-06-10 14:27:26
date last changed
2016-06-10 14:27:26
@misc{8874291,
  abstract     = {Although terrorism poses a growing threat, few can present a precise and all encompassing definition of the term. Internationally, as well as academically, there is disagreement about which acts should be subjected by the term. Swedish criminal law similarly lacks a definition; instead numerous terrorist acts are criminalized under separate forms of crimes.

The purpose of this essay is to investigate the meaning of terrorism in Swedish criminal law. It is based on a right dogmatic approach and has its theoretical basis in the principle of legality. Firstly, the definitional problem is examined, as well as some definitions suggested in the literature. A number of objective characteristics are identified: terrorism is the use of violence to attain a political aim, where fear is used as a tool to achieve psychological effects. The precise limits of the scope, however, are controversial.

If these characteristics describe terrorism, the criminal definition indicates to what extent such acts are prohibited. Swedish counter-terrorism legislation is comprised of three special laws, wherein terrorist acts are sorted under terrorist crimes and particularly serious crimes. Given the above mentioned character traits, the terrorist crime should be understood as terrorism in Swedish criminal law, whilst particularly serious crimes represents terrorist acts which are prohibited to assist, including terrorist crimes.

Several legality issues are pointed out. Firstly, it is unclear what constitutes a terrorist crime. Court praxis in the area is highly limited, and legislative history merely contains general formulations to exemplify varying terrorist acts. Furthermore, the regulations of terrorist crimes and particularly serious crimes are highly complex. The latter seems most problematic since it refers to several legal norms found in international instruments. Lastly, the separation of terms causes great confusion, as it is difficult to deduce their interrelation only by the wording of the laws.

As a whole, the counter-terrorism legislation should be regarded as highly questionable from a point of view of legality. To achieve greater foreseeability, the author advocates that the regulations should be implemented into a separate chapter of the Swedish penal code. In addition, the terrorist crime should either be titled terrorism, or expressly mentioned as the collection of acts that comprises terrorism. Lastly, the acts subjected by the financial and recruitment laws should be titled lateral terrorist acts, or, alternatively, not be titled as a separate form of crime, and the term particularly serious crimes repealed.},
  author       = {Lindmark, Gustav},
  keyword      = {Särskilt allvarlig brottslighet,Terroristbrott,Terrorism,Straffrätt,Legalitetsprincipen,Terroristbrottslagen,Finansieringslagen,Rekryteringslagen,Terrorist,Bomber},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Vad kallas det när bomberna faller? En studie av det straffrättsliga terrorismbegreppet mot bakgrund av legalitetsprincipen},
  year         = {2016},
}