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”Den som är avvita, vare strafflös” - Om den straffrättsliga synen på psykiskt sjuka brottslingar de senaste hundra åren

Gustafsson, Elin LU (2016) LAGF03 20161
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
The question of the mentally ill offenders’ status in the justice system has been intensely debated over the last hundred years. The issues which have been most discussed have been the importance of the defendants’ accountability, as well as how the punishment system for mentally ill offenders should be constructed.

The purpose of his legal history essay has been to examine how the view of the mentally ill criminals have changed, and why. The study has revealed that the rise of psychiatry as a new science was of great importance for the insight of crime as a phenomenon, and for the construction of the punishment system. Psychiatric evaluations greatly affected the assessment of the accused, and the psychiatric influence over the justice... (More)
The question of the mentally ill offenders’ status in the justice system has been intensely debated over the last hundred years. The issues which have been most discussed have been the importance of the defendants’ accountability, as well as how the punishment system for mentally ill offenders should be constructed.

The purpose of his legal history essay has been to examine how the view of the mentally ill criminals have changed, and why. The study has revealed that the rise of psychiatry as a new science was of great importance for the insight of crime as a phenomenon, and for the construction of the punishment system. Psychiatric evaluations greatly affected the assessment of the accused, and the psychiatric influence over the justice system increased in the the first part of the twentieth century.

The debate between representatives for the classical criminal law ideology, and the positive criminology ideology greatly influenced the reformation of the criminal law system. The harsh criticism of the psychiatric long-term storage of criminals also drove the development of a new penal system forward. The study has shown that the accountability of the criminals has gone from having a vital status in the criminal law system, to being completely abolished. In recent years, the issue has been revived through the proposal of a re-integration of the accountability in Swedish law. This idea has also received some support in the recent criminal justice debate.

Today's view of mentally ill offenders, can according to the survey probably be explained as a backlash against the current care-based penalty system. Dissatisfaction with the system has made society demand tougher punishment for mentally ill offenders, and the debate is more focused on questions concerning retribution and public security than before. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Frågan om de psykiskt sjuka brottslingarnas straffrättsliga ställning har debatterats flitigt de senaste hundra åren. De frågor som särskilt stått i fokus har varit tillräknelighetens roll för det straffrättsliga ansvaret, samt hur påföljdssystemet för psykiskt sjuka brottslingar borde se ut.

I denna rättshistoriska uppsats har syftet varit att undersöka på vilket sätt synen på psykiskt sjuka brottslingar har förändrats, och varför förändringen sett ut som den gjort. I undersökningen har framkommit att psykiatrins framväxt som en ny vetenskap fick stor betydelse för synen på brottsligheten, och för utformningen av påföljdssystemet. Rättspsykiatriska utlåtanden påverkade i hög grad påföljdsbedömningen för den tilltalade, och psykiatrins... (More)
Frågan om de psykiskt sjuka brottslingarnas straffrättsliga ställning har debatterats flitigt de senaste hundra åren. De frågor som särskilt stått i fokus har varit tillräknelighetens roll för det straffrättsliga ansvaret, samt hur påföljdssystemet för psykiskt sjuka brottslingar borde se ut.

I denna rättshistoriska uppsats har syftet varit att undersöka på vilket sätt synen på psykiskt sjuka brottslingar har förändrats, och varför förändringen sett ut som den gjort. I undersökningen har framkommit att psykiatrins framväxt som en ny vetenskap fick stor betydelse för synen på brottsligheten, och för utformningen av påföljdssystemet. Rättspsykiatriska utlåtanden påverkade i hög grad påföljdsbedömningen för den tilltalade, och psykiatrins inflytande över rättssystemet ökade kraftigt under 1900-talets första del.

Den ideologiska debatten mellan företrädare för den klassiska straffrätten respektive den positiva kriminologin, kom i stor utsträckning att influera den reformation av strafflagstiftningen som brottsbalken medförde. Även den hårda kritik som riktats mot psykiatrin och dess långtidsförvaring av otillräkneliga kriminella drev på utvecklingen mot ett nytt vårdinriktat påföljdssystem. Undersökningen har visat att tillräknelighetens roll för straffet och skuldfrågan har gått från att ha en avgörande betydelse enligt strafflagen, till att helt avskaffas i brottsbalken. Under senare år har frågan om ett återinförande av tillräknelighetskravet fått nytt liv genom förslag i två utredningsbetänkanden, och ett visst stöd i straffrättsliga debatten.

Dagens syn på psykiskt sjuka brottslingar kan enligt undersökningen troligen förklaras som en motreaktion mot det vårdbaserade påföljdssystemet som lanserats genom brottsbalken. Missnöjet har gjort att samhället kräver hårdare straff för psykiskt sjuka brottslingar och debatten kretsar mer kring vedergällning och samhällsskydd än tidigare. (Less)
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author
Gustafsson, Elin LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20161
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
rättshistoria
language
Swedish
id
8874589
date added to LUP
2016-07-03 21:27:41
date last changed
2016-07-03 21:27:41
@misc{8874589,
  abstract     = {The question of the mentally ill offenders’ status in the justice system has been intensely debated over the last hundred years. The issues which have been most discussed have been the importance of the defendants’ accountability, as well as how the punishment system for mentally ill offenders should be constructed.

The purpose of his legal history essay has been to examine how the view of the mentally ill criminals have changed, and why. The study has revealed that the rise of psychiatry as a new science was of great importance for the insight of crime as a phenomenon, and for the construction of the punishment system. Psychiatric evaluations greatly affected the assessment of the accused, and the psychiatric influence over the justice system increased in the the first part of the twentieth century.

The debate between representatives for the classical criminal law ideology, and the positive criminology ideology greatly influenced the reformation of the criminal law system. The harsh criticism of the psychiatric long-term storage of criminals also drove the development of a new penal system forward. The study has shown that the accountability of the criminals has gone from having a vital status in the criminal law system, to being completely abolished. In recent years, the issue has been revived through the proposal of a re-integration of the accountability in Swedish law. This idea has also received some support in the recent criminal justice debate.

Today's view of mentally ill offenders, can according to the survey probably be explained as a backlash against the current care-based penalty system. Dissatisfaction with the system has made society demand tougher punishment for mentally ill offenders, and the debate is more focused on questions concerning retribution and public security than before.},
  author       = {Gustafsson, Elin},
  keyword      = {rättshistoria},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {”Den som är avvita, vare strafflös” - Om den straffrättsliga synen på psykiskt sjuka brottslingar de senaste hundra åren},
  year         = {2016},
}