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Mitt barn, mina regler - Om barns integritetsskydd gentemot vårdnadshavaren på sociala medier i skenet av barnkonventionen

Ulfhammer, Elin LU (2016) JURM02 20161
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Dagligen möts vi av bilder på barn som vårdnadshavare har publicerat på sociala medier. Ett exempel på detta är Calle Schulmans Instagramkonto där videoklipp på hans femåriga dotter läggs upp regelbundet. Frågan uppkommer om, och i vilken utsträckning, en vårdnadshavare får publicera personlig information om sitt barn. Vilka rättsliga medel och möjligheter finns att tillgå för barn om de känner sig kränkta av vårdnadshavarens exponering av dem på sociala medier? Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka hur skyddet för barns integritet på sociala medier är reglerat och hur det förhåller sig till barnets vårdnadshavare, deras intressen och vårdnadsansvar.
En stor del av problematiken bygger på synen på barn som rättssubjekt. Denna syn utgår från... (More)
Dagligen möts vi av bilder på barn som vårdnadshavare har publicerat på sociala medier. Ett exempel på detta är Calle Schulmans Instagramkonto där videoklipp på hans femåriga dotter läggs upp regelbundet. Frågan uppkommer om, och i vilken utsträckning, en vårdnadshavare får publicera personlig information om sitt barn. Vilka rättsliga medel och möjligheter finns att tillgå för barn om de känner sig kränkta av vårdnadshavarens exponering av dem på sociala medier? Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka hur skyddet för barns integritet på sociala medier är reglerat och hur det förhåller sig till barnets vårdnadshavare, deras intressen och vårdnadsansvar.
En stor del av problematiken bygger på synen på barn som rättssubjekt. Denna syn utgår från att barn inte är fulländade människor, eftersom de inte har samma kunskaper eller erfarenheter som vuxna och därmed inte antas kunna fatta rationella beslut. Förhållandet mellan vuxna och barn går att förklara utifrån Rädda Barnens ungdomsförbunds teori om åldersmaktsordningen, en hierarki i samhället där vuxna är överlägsna barn och har mer makt och resurser.
Skyddet för barns integritet på sociala medier regleras specifikt i PuL, medan ett generellt skydd återfinns i EKMR, barnkonventionen och RF. I FB regleras vårdnadshavarens skyldighet att respektera sitt barns integritet, samtidigt som tillsynsansvaret understryks. I beslut som rör barnet, så som om bilder på barnet ska publiceras på sociala medier, ska vårdnadshavaren lyssna på och respektera barnets åsikter samt ha barnets bästa i åtanke. Om vårdnadshavaren inte respekterar sitt barns integritet och barnet känner sig kränkt kan möjliga konsekvenser bli skadestånd till barnet eller frånhänd vårdnad. Att något av dessa skulle inträffa i realiteten är dock otroligt i och med barns bristande rättshandlingsförmåga och de svårigheter att hävda sina rättigheter som därmed följer.
Barns rätt till skydd för integritet på sociala medier kan bli starkare om barnkonventionen inkorporeras till svensk lag eftersom det kan få en normerande verkan hos såväl vårdnadshavare som inom rättsväsendet. I och med EU:s pågående dataskyddsreform kommer PuL att upphöra och då även missbruksregeln som riktar sig till privatpersoner. Reformen kan ses som ett incitament att instifta ett integritetsskydd i den nationella lagstiftningen som gäller specifikt för barn på internet, vilket föreslås som åtgärd i uppsats. En sådan förändring skulle vara i linje med de tankar om barns integritet som extra skyddsvärd, vilket bland annat uttrycks i EU:s nya dataskydds-förordning. I en ny nationell missbruksregel skulle barns eget samtycke och självbestämmanderätt regleras, så att barnet skyddas även i förhållande till vårdnadshavaren. Ytterligare åtgärd som föreslås i uppsatsen är att barnombudsmannen undersöker problemet i syfte att få barns synpunkter och åsikter i frågan. En sådan undersökning skulle dessutom uppmärksamma vårdnadshavare på att deras publiceringar på sociala medier kan få deras barn att känna sig kränkt, både vid tidpunkten för publicering och när de blir äldre. (Less)
Abstract
Daily we encounter pictures of children on social media, published by their custodians. One example of this is the Instagram account of Calle Schulman, where video sequences of his five-year-old daughter are frequently published. This raises the question whether custodians are allowed to publish personal information in this manner. What legal measures and opportunities are available to children who feel insulted by the custodian’s exposure of them on social media? The purpose of this essay is to investigate the protection of children’s right to integrity on social media and how that relates to the child’s custodians regarding their interests and custody responsibilities.
The view of children as legal subjects emanates from the... (More)
Daily we encounter pictures of children on social media, published by their custodians. One example of this is the Instagram account of Calle Schulman, where video sequences of his five-year-old daughter are frequently published. This raises the question whether custodians are allowed to publish personal information in this manner. What legal measures and opportunities are available to children who feel insulted by the custodian’s exposure of them on social media? The purpose of this essay is to investigate the protection of children’s right to integrity on social media and how that relates to the child’s custodians regarding their interests and custody responsibilities.
The view of children as legal subjects emanates from the perspective of children not being fully developed human beings, since they do not have the same knowledge or experience as adults and hence are incapable of making rational decisions. The relationship between adults and children can be explained by the age-power order, a theory developed by the organisation Red Cross Youth which states that adults are superior children with more power and resources.
The protection of children’s integrity on social media is regulated specifically in the Swedish Personal Data Act, while a more general protection is to be found in the European Convention on Human Rights, the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child and the Swedish Instrument of Government. Both the custodian’s responsibility to respect the integrity of his or her child and the custodian’s supervisory responsibility are regulated in the Swedish Children and Parents Code. Decisions concerning the child, as to whether pictures of him or her are to be published on social media, requires the custodian to listen and respect the opinions of the child, and further to have the best interest of the child in mind. If the custodian does not respect the integrity of their child resulting in the child feeling insulted, consequences could follow including: the child is awarded damages, the parent loses custody or is sentenced to prison or to pay fines. Neither of these sanctions are likely to be realised, due to the child’s lack of legal competence and following difficulties to claim his or her rights.
Children’s right to protection of integrity on social media can become stronger if the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is incorporated into Swedish law, since this could have a normative effect in the legal system and among custodians. The Swedish Personal Data Act will cease to exist due to EU’s present reform of data protection. The reform could be seen as an incitement to institute a new protection of integrity in the national law, specifically for children on the Internet, which is proposed in the essay. This would be in line with the idea that children’s integrity is important to protect, an idea reflected in EU’s new data regulation. Self-determination and consent of the child should furthermore be regulated in this new law, to protect the child from violations from the custodian. Another measure suggested in the essay is that the ombudsman of children (barnombudsmannen) investigates the issue in order to receive children’s views and opinions. Such an investigation would in addition draw attention to how the custodian’s publication of pictures on social media can violate the child’s integrity, both at the time of publication and when he or she becomes older. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ulfhammer, Elin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
My child, my rules - About the protection of children's integrity from the custodian on social media in the light of the Convention of the Rights of the Child
course
JURM02 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Offentlig rätt, IT-rätt, integritet, sociala medier, barnets bästa, barnkonventionen, familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
8874748
date added to LUP
2016-08-02 17:09:12
date last changed
2016-08-02 17:09:12
@misc{8874748,
  abstract     = {Daily we encounter pictures of children on social media, published by their custodians. One example of this is the Instagram account of Calle Schulman, where video sequences of his five-year-old daughter are frequently published. This raises the question whether custodians are allowed to publish personal information in this manner. What legal measures and opportunities are available to children who feel insulted by the custodian’s exposure of them on social media? The purpose of this essay is to investigate the protection of children’s right to integrity on social media and how that relates to the child’s custodians regarding their interests and custody responsibilities. 
	The view of children as legal subjects emanates from the perspective of children not being fully developed human beings, since they do not have the same knowledge or experience as adults and hence are incapable of making rational decisions. The relationship between adults and children can be explained by the age-power order, a theory developed by the organisation Red Cross Youth which states that adults are superior children with more power and resources. 
	The protection of children’s integrity on social media is regulated specifically in the Swedish Personal Data Act, while a more general protection is to be found in the European Convention on Human Rights, the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child and the Swedish Instrument of Government. Both the custodian’s responsibility to respect the integrity of his or her child and the custodian’s supervisory responsibility are regulated in the Swedish Children and Parents Code. Decisions concerning the child, as to whether pictures of him or her are to be published on social media, requires the custodian to listen and respect the opinions of the child, and further to have the best interest of the child in mind. If the custodian does not respect the integrity of their child resulting in the child feeling insulted, consequences could follow including: the child is awarded damages, the parent loses custody or is sentenced to prison or to pay fines. Neither of these sanctions are likely to be realised, due to the child’s lack of legal competence and following difficulties to claim his or her rights. 
	Children’s right to protection of integrity on social media can become stronger if the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is incorporated into Swedish law, since this could have a normative effect in the legal system and among custodians. The Swedish Personal Data Act will cease to exist due to EU’s present reform of data protection. The reform could be seen as an incitement to institute a new protection of integrity in the national law, specifically for children on the Internet, which is proposed in the essay. This would be in line with the idea that children’s integrity is important to protect, an idea reflected in EU’s new data regulation. Self-determination and consent of the child should furthermore be regulated in this new law, to protect the child from violations from the custodian. Another measure suggested in the essay is that the ombudsman of children (barnombudsmannen) investigates the issue in order to receive children’s views and opinions. Such an investigation would in addition draw attention to how the custodian’s publication of pictures on social media can violate the child’s integrity, both at the time of publication and when he or she becomes older.},
  author       = {Ulfhammer, Elin},
  keyword      = {Offentlig rätt,IT-rätt,integritet,sociala medier,barnets bästa,barnkonventionen,familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Mitt barn, mina regler - Om barns integritetsskydd gentemot vårdnadshavaren på sociala medier i skenet av barnkonventionen},
  year         = {2016},
}