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Samtyckeregleringens vara eller icke vara - Vilka skäl talar för respektive emot en samtyckesbaserad regleringsmodell?

Bytyqi, Selim LU (2016) LAGF03 20162
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sexuella övergrepp utgör en mycket allvarlig integritetskränkning. För att motarbeta dessa övergrepp krävs ett starkt och välutvecklat straffrättsligt skydd. Som en följd härav har våldtäktslagstiftningen, allt sedan brottsbalkens (BrB) ikraftträdande år 1965, utvecklats till att bli alltmer offercentrerad, inkluderande och avancerad. Det är uppenbart att det rör sig om sena reformer, men icke desto mindre tydligt att rättsväsendet snabbt uppnått de resultat som eftersträvats.

Inom loppet av 40 år har våldtäktslagstiftningen gått från att slopa äktenskapsrelaterade våldtäktsbrott som gav mannen rätt att använda våld mot kvinnan, till att bli alltmer könsneutral. Under dessa fyra decennier har olika sexualbrottsrekvisit bytts ut och... (More)
Sexuella övergrepp utgör en mycket allvarlig integritetskränkning. För att motarbeta dessa övergrepp krävs ett starkt och välutvecklat straffrättsligt skydd. Som en följd härav har våldtäktslagstiftningen, allt sedan brottsbalkens (BrB) ikraftträdande år 1965, utvecklats till att bli alltmer offercentrerad, inkluderande och avancerad. Det är uppenbart att det rör sig om sena reformer, men icke desto mindre tydligt att rättsväsendet snabbt uppnått de resultat som eftersträvats.

Inom loppet av 40 år har våldtäktslagstiftningen gått från att slopa äktenskapsrelaterade våldtäktsbrott som gav mannen rätt att använda våld mot kvinnan, till att bli alltmer könsneutral. Under dessa fyra decennier har olika sexualbrottsrekvisit bytts ut och ersatts med varandra. Således har våldtäktsdefinitionen successivt utvidgats. Genom 1984 års reform av BrB utvidgades våldtäktsbestämmelsen som var reglerad i 6 kap. 1 § 1 st. BrB till att omfatta jämförligt sexuellt umgänge. I samband 1998 års reform av BrB utsträcktes våldtäktsbrottet i samma bestämmelse ytterligare till att avse samlag eller annat sexuellt umgänge som är jämförligt med påtvingat samlag.

Reformerna av BrB har fortsatt under de senaste åren. År 2005 gjordes stora ändringar i våldtäktsbestämmelsen. Rekvisitet sexuellt umgänge togs bort och ersattes med begreppet sexuell handling. Även rekvisitet vanmakt slopades och ersattes med lokutionen hjälplöst tillstånd. Efter denna reform av våldtäktsbestämmelsen krävs både tvång och sexuell handling för att våldtäkt ska föreligga enligt lagens mening. Den senaste reformen av BrB ägde rum år 2013 varvid rekvisitet hjälplöst tillstånd i 6 kap. 1 § 2 st. BrB utvidgades till att omfatta personer i en särskilt utsatt situation.

Det bakomliggande syftet med dessa reformer har varit, allt sedan BrB:s ikraftträdande, att skydda kvinnans sexuella integritet och självbestämmanderätt.

Den nuvarande våldtäktsregleringen i 6 kap. 1 § BrB grundas antingen på tvång eller på otillbörligt utnyttjande vid en särskilt utsatt situation. I tvångsrekvisitet ingår både hot och våld som grund för straffansvar, vilket är lågt ställda krav. Rekvisitet särskilt utsatt situation kan konstitueras av flera omständigheter sammantagna.

I takt med utvecklingen av våldtäktslagstiftningen har ett annat omdiskuterat spörsmål varit huruvida Sverige borde införa en samtyckesbaserad våldtäktslagstiftning. Denna fråga aktualiserades i samband med tillsättandet av 1998 års sexualbrottskommitté, men har återkommit med jämna mellanrum sedan dess. Anledningen är: dels de brister som funnits med de gällande våldtäktsregleringarna och dels lagstiftarens ovilja att införa en samtyckesbaserad regleringsmodell för våldtäktsbrotten.

Frågan om samtyckesregleringens vara eller icke vara har blivit en allt hetare angelägenhet efter utslaget i Bulgarienfallet den 4 december år 2003, och svenska rättsvetenskapsmän är inte överens beträffande huruvida Sverige borde införa en våldtäktslagstiftning baserad på samtycke för att leva upp till kraven i EKMR. Olika uppfattningar har förekommit i doktrin, men enligt regeringen står tvångsrekvisitet som grund för straffanasvar för våldtäkt inte i konflikt med EKMR, vilket framgår tydligt om man läser regeringens överväganden i samband med 2005 och 2013 års ändring av BrB.

Trots detta har debatten om en samtyckesreglering inte avtagit, tvärtom fortsätter den att pågå. År 2014 tillsattes en ny sexualbrottskommitté betecknad ”ett starkare skydd för den sexuella integriteten”.Vederbörande utredning föreslår införandet av ett frivillighetsrekvisit för våldtäktsbrotten som ett led i en samtyckesreglering. Saken är dock att det redan finns en samtyckesbedömning inbakad i 6 kap. 1 § BrB, vilket framgått av Solariefallet, Tumbafallet och därefter tydligt återspeglats i Stureplansfallet.

Dagens våldtäktsreglering är inte sådan att den är resistent mot kritiken som riktas mot den. Det mesta talar för att de brister som finns med dagens gällande våldtäktsreglering kan hanteras inom ramen för samtyckebegreppets struktur. I samma veva finns det emellertid inget som säger att en samtyckesreglering inte skulle kunna vara en godtagbar medelväg – givet att – samtyckebegreppets normativa beskaffenhet beaktas.

Slutsatsen blir att en samtyckesreglering i svensk rätt inte är nödvändig men att en sådan reglering likväl kan vara ändamålsenlig under förutsättning att samtyckebegreppets normativa karaktär uppmärksammas. (Less)
Abstract
Sexual abuses constitute a very serious integrity violation. To counter these abuses requires a strong and well-developed criminal law. As a consequence, ever since the Penal Code (PC) entered into force in 1965, the rape legislation has developed to become ever more victim-centered, inclusive and advanced. It is obvious it’s about late reforms, but nonetheless clearly that the judicial system has quickly achieved the results being pursued.

In the space of 40 years, the rape legislation has gone from abolishing marriage-related rape crimes which gave the man right to use violence against the woman, to become increasingly gender-neutral. During these four decades various requirements of sexual crimes have been replaced with each other.... (More)
Sexual abuses constitute a very serious integrity violation. To counter these abuses requires a strong and well-developed criminal law. As a consequence, ever since the Penal Code (PC) entered into force in 1965, the rape legislation has developed to become ever more victim-centered, inclusive and advanced. It is obvious it’s about late reforms, but nonetheless clearly that the judicial system has quickly achieved the results being pursued.

In the space of 40 years, the rape legislation has gone from abolishing marriage-related rape crimes which gave the man right to use violence against the woman, to become increasingly gender-neutral. During these four decades various requirements of sexual crimes have been replaced with each other. Thus, the rape definition has gradually expanded. By the reform of 1984 year PC the rape provision that was regulated in chapter 6, section 1, paragraph 1 of PC was extended to include comparable sexual intercourse. In connection with the reform of 1998 year PC the rape crime in the said provision was further extended to cover sexual intercourse or other sexual activity that is compatible with forced intercourse, PC.

The reform of PC has continued over recent years. In 2005 major changes were made in the rape provision regulated in chapter 6, section 1, paragraph 1 of PC. The requirement of sexual intercourse was removed and replaced with the concept of sexual act. Also the requirement of impotence was abolished and replaced by the term helpless state. Following this reform of the rape legislation, it requires both coercion and sexual act for rape to exist according to the law. The last time PC was reformed was in 2013 whereby the term helpless state in chapter 6, section 2, paragraph 1 of PC, was extended to cover persons at a particularly vulnerable situation.

The underlying purpose of these reforms has been, ever since PC entered into force, to protect the woman’s sexual integrity and self-determination.

The current rape legislation in chapter 6, paragraph 1 of PC is founded either on coercion or undue exploitation at a particularly vulnerable situation. The requirement of coercion includes both threats and violence as basis for criminal liability, which are easy to achieve. The requirement of particularly vulnerable situation can be composed of several circumstances together.

In step with the development of the rape legislation another debated issue has been whether Sweden should introduce a new legislation based on consent. This issue was raised in connection with the appointment of 1998 year sex crimes investigation, but has returned regularly since then. The reason is: partly the deficiencies which have existed with the regulations regarding rape and partly the legislature’s unwillingness to introduce a regulatory model based on consent.

The question about the consent regulation to be, or not to be has become an increasingly hot issue following the verdict in the case of MC v. Bulgaria on 4 December 2003, and Swedish legal scholars are not united on whether Sweden should introduce a new legislation based on consent in order to live up to the requirements of ECHR. Different opinions have appeared in doctrine, but according to the government, the requirement of coercion as basis for criminal liability is not in conflict with the ECHR, which appears clearly if one reads the government’s considerations in connection with the amendments of PC which took place in 2005 and 2013 respectively.

Despite this, the debate on the consent legislation has not abated; on the contrary it continues to run. In 2014 a new sex crime investigation referred to as "stronger protection of sexual integrity" was appointed. This investigation proposes the introduction of a requirement based on voluntariness as basis for criminal liability for rape crimes as a part of legislation based on consent. However, as it happens we already have an assessment based on consent in chapter 6, paragraph 1 of PC which is being applied, as it can be seen in Solariefallet and Tumbafallet and which subsequently has been clearly reflected in Stureplansfallet.

The current rape legislation is not such that it is resistant to the criticism directed against it. The deficiencies with the current rape legislation can probably be handled under the concept of consent. At the same time, however, there is nothing that says that a legislation model based on consent would not be an acceptable compromise – provided that – the normative nature of the term consent is being considered.

The conclusion is that a new legislation based on consent is not necessary, but that such a regulation may nevertheless be appropriate, provided that, the normative character of the term consent is being paid attention to. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Bytyqi, Selim LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The consent legislation to be or not to be - What are the reasons for and against a consent-based regulatory model?
course
LAGF03 20162
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
straffrätt, criminal law, consent, samtycke, rape, våldtäkt, Law and political science
language
Swedish
id
8896544
date added to LUP
2017-02-04 16:51:05
date last changed
2017-02-04 16:51:05
@misc{8896544,
  abstract     = {Sexual abuses constitute a very serious integrity violation. To counter these abuses requires a strong and well-developed criminal law. As a consequence, ever since the Penal Code (PC) entered into force in 1965, the rape legislation has developed to become ever more victim-centered, inclusive and advanced. It is obvious it’s about late reforms, but nonetheless clearly that the judicial system has quickly achieved the results being pursued. 

In the space of 40 years, the rape legislation has gone from abolishing marriage-related rape crimes which gave the man right to use violence against the woman, to become increasingly gender-neutral. During these four decades various requirements of sexual crimes have been replaced with each other. Thus, the rape definition has gradually expanded. By the reform of 1984 year PC the rape provision that was regulated in chapter 6, section 1, paragraph 1 of PC was extended to include comparable sexual intercourse. In connection with the reform of 1998 year PC the rape crime in the said provision was further extended to cover sexual intercourse or other sexual activity that is compatible with forced intercourse, PC. 

The reform of PC has continued over recent years. In 2005 major changes were made in the rape provision regulated in chapter 6, section 1, paragraph 1 of PC. The requirement of sexual intercourse was removed and replaced with the concept of sexual act. Also the requirement of impotence was abolished and replaced by the term helpless state. Following this reform of the rape legislation, it requires both coercion and sexual act for rape to exist according to the law. The last time PC was reformed was in 2013 whereby the term helpless state in chapter 6, section 2, paragraph 1 of PC, was extended to cover persons at a particularly vulnerable situation. 

The underlying purpose of these reforms has been, ever since PC entered into force, to protect the woman’s sexual integrity and self-determination. 
 
The current rape legislation in chapter 6, paragraph 1 of PC is founded either on coercion or undue exploitation at a particularly vulnerable situation. The requirement of coercion includes both threats and violence as basis for criminal liability, which are easy to achieve. The requirement of particularly vulnerable situation can be composed of several circumstances together. 
				
In step with the development of the rape legislation another debated issue has been whether Sweden should introduce a new legislation based on consent. This issue was raised in connection with the appointment of 1998 year sex crimes investigation, but has returned regularly since then. The reason is: partly the deficiencies which have existed with the regulations regarding rape and partly the legislature’s unwillingness to introduce a regulatory model based on consent. 		

The question about the consent regulation to be, or not to be has become an increasingly hot issue following the verdict in the case of MC v. Bulgaria on 4 December 2003, and Swedish legal scholars are not united on whether Sweden should introduce a new legislation based on consent in order to live up to the requirements of ECHR. Different opinions have appeared in doctrine, but according to the government, the requirement of coercion as basis for criminal liability is not in conflict with the ECHR, which appears clearly if one reads the government’s considerations in connection with the amendments of PC which took place in 2005 and 2013 respectively. 
		
Despite this, the debate on the consent legislation has not abated; on the contrary it continues to run. In 2014 a new sex crime investigation referred to as "stronger protection of sexual integrity" was appointed. This investigation proposes the introduction of a requirement based on voluntariness as basis for criminal liability for rape crimes as a part of legislation based on consent. However, as it happens we already have an assessment based on consent in chapter 6, paragraph 1 of PC which is being applied, as it can be seen in Solariefallet and Tumbafallet and which subsequently has been clearly reflected in Stureplansfallet. 

The current rape legislation is not such that it is resistant to the criticism directed against it. The deficiencies with the current rape legislation can probably be handled under the concept of consent. At the same time, however, there is nothing that says that a legislation model based on consent would not be an acceptable compromise – provided that – the normative nature of the term consent is being considered. 		

The conclusion is that a new legislation based on consent is not necessary, but that such a regulation may nevertheless be appropriate, provided that, the normative character of the term consent is being paid attention to.},
  author       = {Bytyqi, Selim},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,criminal law,consent,samtycke,rape,våldtäkt,Law and political science},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Samtyckeregleringens vara eller icke vara - Vilka skäl talar för respektive emot en samtyckesbaserad regleringsmodell?},
  year         = {2016},
}