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Miljöcertifierade byggentreprenader i offentlig upphandling - Att lägga grunden till en legaldefinition

Nilsson, Christian LU (2016) JURM02 20162
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Byggsektorn har stor miljöpåverkan och det är viktigt att byggentreprenader genomförs på ett sätt som följer de miljömål som finns. Genom offentlig upphandling har myndigheter en stor möjlighet att inverka på miljöpåverkan, genom att ställa krav på att deras byggentreprenader följer vissa miljökriterier. De undersökta miljöcertifieringarna skulle då kunna utgöra utmärkta medel för att på ett strukturerat vis kunna tillgodose att byggentreprenader uppförs utifrån avsedda miljökriterier. Miljöcertifieringarna är emellertid framtagna genom privata initiativ utifrån de förhållanden som råder i byggsektorn, och är därmed inte anpassade till den upphandlingsrättsliga lagstiftningen.

För att upphandlande myndigheter ska kunna ställa krav... (More)
Byggsektorn har stor miljöpåverkan och det är viktigt att byggentreprenader genomförs på ett sätt som följer de miljömål som finns. Genom offentlig upphandling har myndigheter en stor möjlighet att inverka på miljöpåverkan, genom att ställa krav på att deras byggentreprenader följer vissa miljökriterier. De undersökta miljöcertifieringarna skulle då kunna utgöra utmärkta medel för att på ett strukturerat vis kunna tillgodose att byggentreprenader uppförs utifrån avsedda miljökriterier. Miljöcertifieringarna är emellertid framtagna genom privata initiativ utifrån de förhållanden som råder i byggsektorn, och är därmed inte anpassade till den upphandlingsrättsliga lagstiftningen.

För att upphandlande myndigheter ska kunna ställa krav direkt på endera av de undersökta miljöcertifieringarna krävs att de ska kunna definieras som miljömärken eller märken i upphandlingsrättslig mening. Den företagna rättsutredningen har emellertid visat att en sådan definition inte är möjlig, främst beroende på hur miljöcertifieringarna är organiserade i Sverige. Härvidlag följer att upphandlande myndigheter som avser att använda sig av de krav som följer av endera miljöcertifieringen, måste lyfta ut kraven och ange dem separat i upphandlingsdokumenten, snarare än att ställa krav direkt på certifieringen i fråga. Uppsatsen utreder även hur upphandlande myndigheter ska hantera bevisning avseende leverantörers referenser, samt möjligheten för dessa myndigheter att använda sig av miljöcertifieringarna som särskilda kontraktsvillkor.

Uppsatsen visar på att betygsystemen inom miljöcertifieringarna kan innebära tillämpningsproblem i praktiken då de inkomna anbuden ska utvärderas. Vidare klargörs även att det föreligger en problematik avseende avtalsuppföljningen, då de externa granskarna för miljöcertifieringarna inte kan anses oberoende från vissa ekonomiska aktörer på marknaden.

Uppsatsen åskådliggör att planeringen av en byggentreprenad som ska miljöcertifieras blir ytterst central. Det finns ett flertal faktorer som måste tas i beaktande innan en sådan offentlig upphandling genomförs. Det sätt på vilket de undersökta miljöcertifieringarna är organiserade i Sverige gör det problematiskt för upphandlande myndigheter att använda sig av dessa. De krav som följer av certifieringarna är emellertid väl genomarbetade och ger miljövinster vilka bör utnyttjas. (Less)
Abstract
The construction sector has great impact on the environment and it is important that the public work contracts are carried out in a way that the environmental objectives requires. Authorities have an opportunity to influence the environment by requiring that all public works contracts obtain certain environmental criteria by means of public procurement. The studied green building certificates could serve as excellent means for a structured way to satisfy that public work contracts are constructed based on intended environmental criteria. Green building certifications, however, developed through private initiatives based on the circumstances prevailing in the construction sector, and are therefore not suited to the public procurement law... (More)
The construction sector has great impact on the environment and it is important that the public work contracts are carried out in a way that the environmental objectives requires. Authorities have an opportunity to influence the environment by requiring that all public works contracts obtain certain environmental criteria by means of public procurement. The studied green building certificates could serve as excellent means for a structured way to satisfy that public work contracts are constructed based on intended environmental criteria. Green building certifications, however, developed through private initiatives based on the circumstances prevailing in the construction sector, and are therefore not suited to the public procurement law legislation.

For contracting authorities to set terms directly on either of the examined green building certifications required that they should be defined as eco-labels or labels in the procurement legal sense. The judicial inquiry in this thesis has shown, however, that such a definition is not possible, mainly because of how green building certifications are organized in Sweden. In this respect, it means that contracting authorities that intends to use the requirements imposed by either green building certification, must specify the requirements separately in the procurement documents, rather than making demands directly to the certification in question. This thesis is also studying how the contracting authorities are to handle the evidence relating to suppliers' credentials, as well as the ability of these authorities to make use of green building certifications as conditions for performance of contracts.

The thesis shows that the rating systems of green building certifications may involve application problems in practice when the tenders received will be evaluated. Furthermore, the thesis clarifies that there is a problem in contract follow up, when the external reviewers for green building certificates not always can be considered independent from a certain economic operator on the market.

This thesis illustrates that the planning of the public work contracts that are to be green building certified becomes extremely crucial. There are several factors that must be considered before such a public procurement is carried out. The way in which the examined green building certifications are organized in Sweden makes it difficult for contracting authorities to use any of these. The requirements of the certifications, however, is thoroughly worked out and provides environmental benefits which should be utilized. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Nilsson, Christian LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Green building certified construction works in public procurement - To set the foundation for a legal definition
course
JURM02 20162
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Förmögenhetsrätt, Offentlig upphandling, Miljöcertifierade byggentreprenader, BREEAM, LEED, Miljöbyggnad, Upphandlingsstrategier, Miljömärken, Märken, Definition, Miljöledningssystem, Kvalificeringsfas, Tilldelningsfas, Tekniska krav, Referenser, Avtalsuppföljning, Väsentlig ändring, Partnering, Viktning, Utvärderingsmodeller, Särskilda kontraktsvillkor, Swedish Green Building Council, Totalentreprenad, Utförandeentreprenad, Generalentreprenad, Delad entreprenad
language
Swedish
id
8896918
date added to LUP
2017-01-22 15:32:39
date last changed
2017-01-22 15:32:39
@misc{8896918,
  abstract     = {The construction sector has great impact on the environment and it is important that the public work contracts are carried out in a way that the environmental objectives requires. Authorities have an opportunity to influence the environment by requiring that all public works contracts obtain certain environmental criteria by means of public procurement. The studied green building certificates could serve as excellent means for a structured way to satisfy that public work contracts are constructed based on intended environmental criteria. Green building certifications, however, developed through private initiatives based on the circumstances prevailing in the construction sector, and are therefore not suited to the public procurement law legislation. 

For contracting authorities to set terms directly on either of the examined green building certifications required that they should be defined as eco-labels or labels in the procurement legal sense. The judicial inquiry in this thesis has shown, however, that such a definition is not possible, mainly because of how green building certifications are organized in Sweden. In this respect, it means that contracting authorities that intends to use the requirements imposed by either green building certification, must specify the requirements separately in the procurement documents, rather than making demands directly to the certification in question. This thesis is also studying how the contracting authorities are to handle the evidence relating to suppliers' credentials, as well as the ability of these authorities to make use of green building certifications as conditions for performance of contracts.

The thesis shows that the rating systems of green building certifications may involve application problems in practice when the tenders received will be evaluated. Furthermore, the thesis clarifies that there is a problem in contract follow up, when the external reviewers for green building certificates not always can be considered independent from a certain economic operator on the market.

This thesis illustrates that the planning of the public work contracts that are to be green building certified becomes extremely crucial. There are several factors that must be considered before such a public procurement is carried out. The way in which the examined green building certifications are organized in Sweden makes it difficult for contracting authorities to use any of these. The requirements of the certifications, however, is thoroughly worked out and provides environmental benefits which should be utilized.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Christian},
  keyword      = {Förmögenhetsrätt,Offentlig upphandling,Miljöcertifierade byggentreprenader,BREEAM,LEED,Miljöbyggnad,Upphandlingsstrategier,Miljömärken,Märken,Definition,Miljöledningssystem,Kvalificeringsfas,Tilldelningsfas,Tekniska krav,Referenser,Avtalsuppföljning,Väsentlig ändring,Partnering,Viktning,Utvärderingsmodeller,Särskilda kontraktsvillkor,Swedish Green Building Council,Totalentreprenad,Utförandeentreprenad,Generalentreprenad,Delad entreprenad},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Miljöcertifierade byggentreprenader i offentlig upphandling - Att lägga grunden till en legaldefinition},
  year         = {2016},
}