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"Det var ju bara på internet" - En utredning om det straffrättsliga skyddet för barn mot grova virtuella sexuella övergrepp

Larsson, Moa LU (2016) JURM02 20162
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
År 2015 meddelades en dom från Högsta domstolen som medförde att sexualbrott inte längre ses som egenhändiga brott. Ett sexuellt övergrepp kan således begås på distans, där offret utför den sexuella handlingen på sig själv. Våren 2016 prövades i tingsrätt frågan om även våldtäkt mot barn kunde begås på distans. Övergreppen bedömdes dock istället som sexuellt övergrepp mot barn. Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka hur det straffrättsliga skyddet för barn som utsätts för grova övergrepp via internet ser ut, samt belysa frågor och problematik kring skyddets utformning. Förutom de traditionella rättskällorna används material i form av bl.a. psykologisk forskning och domar från underrätterna.

Uppsatsen beskriver bl.a. hur grova virtuella... (More)
År 2015 meddelades en dom från Högsta domstolen som medförde att sexualbrott inte längre ses som egenhändiga brott. Ett sexuellt övergrepp kan således begås på distans, där offret utför den sexuella handlingen på sig själv. Våren 2016 prövades i tingsrätt frågan om även våldtäkt mot barn kunde begås på distans. Övergreppen bedömdes dock istället som sexuellt övergrepp mot barn. Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka hur det straffrättsliga skyddet för barn som utsätts för grova övergrepp via internet ser ut, samt belysa frågor och problematik kring skyddets utformning. Förutom de traditionella rättskällorna används material i form av bl.a. psykologisk forskning och domar från underrätterna.

Uppsatsen beskriver bl.a. hur grova virtuella övergrepp kan se ut: hur de uppstår, vilka element som finns och konsekvenser av dessa. Det konstateras att barn som utsätts för virtuella övergrepp drabbas på samma sätt som barn som utsätts för övergrepp genom gärningspersonens egenhändighet. Den skam- och skuldkänsla som barnet upplever kan vara än starkare då barnet på ett annat sätt varit mer aktiv. Av en kort internationell utblick kan konstateras att kanadensisk reglering fokuserar på den makt och kontroll som övergreppet innebär istället för den fysiska handlingen. Storbritanniens reglering kan sägas se till den fysiska handlingen, men gör inte nödvändigtvis skillnad på vem som utfört handlingen i straffvärdeshänseende. Det konstateras vidare att det i den sexualstraffrättsliga regleringen har börjat ske en förflyttning från de fysiska mot de mentala aspekterna av ett övergrepp. Kränkningen är en central del i bedömningen av de virtuella övergreppen. Samtidigt tycks den fysiska handlingen och vem som utfört den tillmätas stor betydelse i bedömningen om handlingen kan anses vara kvalificerad. Avslutningsvis konstateras att det finns en reglering som fångar upp de handlingar som övergreppen består av. Det kan emellertid sägas vara ett oklart rättsläge huruvida det allvarligaste sexualbrottet mot barn, våldtäkt mot barn, kan begås utan annans egenhändiga utförande av den sexuella handlingen på offret. Det finns dock, utifrån ett barnperspektiv, anledning att se över, förändra eller tydliggöra gällande rätt för att kunna åstadkomma en koherent straffrättslig reglering av de grova sexuella övergreppen mot barn som begås virtuellt. (Less)
Abstract
In 2015 the Supreme Court announced that a perpetrator of a sexual offence no longer has to perform the sexual act in person to be held accountable for the deed. Thus, sexual assault can be committed when a child is coerced into performing a sexual act on themselves. During the spring of 2016 the question whether a perpetrator, based on the statement from the Supreme Court, could be held responsible for rape of minor was under trial in district court. The district court did not agree with the prosecutors’ indictment, instead the deeds were considered as sexual abuse of minor. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how Swedish criminal law and regulation protects children against grave assaults online, and illuminate questions and issues... (More)
In 2015 the Supreme Court announced that a perpetrator of a sexual offence no longer has to perform the sexual act in person to be held accountable for the deed. Thus, sexual assault can be committed when a child is coerced into performing a sexual act on themselves. During the spring of 2016 the question whether a perpetrator, based on the statement from the Supreme Court, could be held responsible for rape of minor was under trial in district court. The district court did not agree with the prosecutors’ indictment, instead the deeds were considered as sexual abuse of minor. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how Swedish criminal law and regulation protects children against grave assaults online, and illuminate questions and issues regarding this criminalization. The thesis is based on materials such as the traditional sources of law, psychological research and judicial decisions from lower criminal courts.

The essay describes how grave virtual assaults develop, what type of actions they consist of and consequences hereof. It is established that children who are victims of virtual assaults are affected the same way as children who are victims of an assault by the perpetrators personal involvement. Feelings of guilt and shame can be even stronger since the child often has been an active participant in another way than in the traditional assault. From an international comparison it is noted that the Canadian regulation tends to focus on the power and control the assault implicates, instead of the physical act itself. The legislation in Great Britain tends to give more relevance to the physical act, but doesn’t necessarily make a difference regarding who has performed the act when it comes to the culpability of the deed. Furthermore, it is established that the Swedish regulation regarding sexual offences tends to move focus from the physical to the mental aspects of an assault. The violation is considered to be of great importance in question of the judgement of virtual assaults. However, the physical act and by whom it is performed seems to be credited great relevance whether the sexual act is considered to be qualified. In conclusion, it is clear that the Swedish regulation does cover the type of acts that a virtual sexual assault consists of. It is however uncertain whether current judicial regulation is applicable on the gravest sexual offence of a child, rape of a minor, when committed without someone else’s personal performance of the sexual act on the child. Hence, there are from a child perspective, reasons to revise, modify or clarify present regulation in order to provide a cohesive criminalization of the grave virtual sexual offences against children. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Larsson, Moa LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
"It was just online" - A study about the protection in criminal law for children against grave virtual sexual assaults
course
JURM02 20162
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
sexuellt övergrepp mot barn, internet, virtuell, barn, straffrätt, criminal law, våldtäkt mot barn
language
Swedish
id
8897274
date added to LUP
2017-01-24 14:37:25
date last changed
2017-01-24 14:37:25
@misc{8897274,
  abstract     = {In 2015 the Supreme Court announced that a perpetrator of a sexual offence no longer has to perform the sexual act in person to be held accountable for the deed. Thus, sexual assault can be committed when a child is coerced into performing a sexual act on themselves. During the spring of 2016 the question whether a perpetrator, based on the statement from the Supreme Court, could be held responsible for rape of minor was under trial in district court. The district court did not agree with the prosecutors’ indictment, instead the deeds were considered as sexual abuse of minor. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how Swedish criminal law and regulation protects children against grave assaults online, and illuminate questions and issues regarding this criminalization. The thesis is based on materials such as the traditional sources of law, psychological research and judicial decisions from lower criminal courts. 

The essay describes how grave virtual assaults develop, what type of actions they consist of and consequences hereof. It is established that children who are victims of virtual assaults are affected the same way as children who are victims of an assault by the perpetrators personal involvement. Feelings of guilt and shame can be even stronger since the child often has been an active participant in another way than in the traditional assault. From an international comparison it is noted that the Canadian regulation tends to focus on the power and control the assault implicates, instead of the physical act itself. The legislation in Great Britain tends to give more relevance to the physical act, but doesn’t necessarily make a difference regarding who has performed the act when it comes to the culpability of the deed. Furthermore, it is established that the Swedish regulation regarding sexual offences tends to move focus from the physical to the mental aspects of an assault. The violation is considered to be of great importance in question of the judgement of virtual assaults. However, the physical act and by whom it is performed seems to be credited great relevance whether the sexual act is considered to be qualified. In conclusion, it is clear that the Swedish regulation does cover the type of acts that a virtual sexual assault consists of. It is however uncertain whether current judicial regulation is applicable on the gravest sexual offence of a child, rape of a minor, when committed without someone else’s personal performance of the sexual act on the child. Hence, there are from a child perspective, reasons to revise, modify or clarify present regulation in order to provide a cohesive criminalization of the grave virtual sexual offences against children.},
  author       = {Larsson, Moa},
  keyword      = {sexuellt övergrepp mot barn,internet,virtuell,barn,straffrätt,criminal law,våldtäkt mot barn},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {"Det var ju bara på internet" - En utredning om det straffrättsliga skyddet för barn mot grova virtuella sexuella övergrepp},
  year         = {2016},
}