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Ju fler kockar, desto sämre soppa? – Om fullmakt i entreprenadavtal

Möller, Hanna LU (2016) JURM02 20162
Department of Law
Abstract
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the rules on power of attorney within construction contract law. To fulfill the purpose, the standard-form contract AB 04 and its articles regarding power of attorney will be examined in relation to the general regulations of power of attorney under Swedish law.

AB 04 stipulates a right for the developer and the contractor to appoint a representative. It also stipulates the possibility for the developer and the contractor to authorize others. This authorization shall be made clear at the construction start meeting. The developer and the contractor then act as grantors and their representatives as agents. When the agent acts within the scope of its authority, the grantor becomes contractually... (More)
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the rules on power of attorney within construction contract law. To fulfill the purpose, the standard-form contract AB 04 and its articles regarding power of attorney will be examined in relation to the general regulations of power of attorney under Swedish law.

AB 04 stipulates a right for the developer and the contractor to appoint a representative. It also stipulates the possibility for the developer and the contractor to authorize others. This authorization shall be made clear at the construction start meeting. The developer and the contractor then act as grantors and their representatives as agents. When the agent acts within the scope of its authority, the grantor becomes contractually bound with the third party while the agent is not a part of the contract. The necessary conditions in the AB 04 article regarding representatives stipulates that the authority is limited to questions in relation to the construction and to make financial and other settlements. The thesis suggests that the authority is limited in time and that the representative, in addition to order ÄTA-work, approve an extension of time and other questions in relation to the construction, also holds the authority to agree on dispute resolution.

The article regarding representatives in AB 04 is designed to meet the requirements of the second chapter of the Swedish Contracts Act regarding power of attorney. The general regulation of power of attorney under Swedish law is also of importance when people, not authorized according to AB 04, are making decisions. Through two recent judgments, the Supreme Court has introduced a new type of power of attorney that is based on a third party's perception regarding the agent’s authority. This has been criticized in legal doctrine, mainly due to the fact that the Supreme Court has made a distinction between a power of attorney based on the grantor's intent and a power of attorney based on the third party's perception regarding the agent’s authority. The perception of a third party is of legal significance regardless the distinction made by the Supreme Court.

From a construction law perspective these judgments are of specific interest since the Supreme Court stated a number of circumstances of particular importance for evaluating a third persons perception regarding a representative's authority. The circumstances has been addressed in a construction law case from 2016 and will most certainly also be invoked in future construction law disputes regarding authority. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Uppsatsen syftar till att redogöra för fullmakt i entreprenadavtal. För att uppnå detta syfte kommer uppsatsen att utreda reglerna om fullmakt i AB 04 och dess förhållande till det allmänna fullmaktsinstitutet.

I AB 04 kommer fullmakt till uttryck genom bestämmelsen om ombud och bestämmelsen om startmöte där behörighet för andra än ombuden kan klargöras. Enligt allmän fullmaktsterminologi intar beställare och entreprenör rollerna som huvudmän och deras ombud intar rollerna som mellanmän. Mellanmännen har behörighet att för sina huvudmän företa rättshandlingar med bindande verkan mot tredje man. Ombuden har i enlighet med AB 04 en långtgående behörighet att företräda sina huvudmän i frågor rörande entreprenaden samt att träffa ekonomiska... (More)
Uppsatsen syftar till att redogöra för fullmakt i entreprenadavtal. För att uppnå detta syfte kommer uppsatsen att utreda reglerna om fullmakt i AB 04 och dess förhållande till det allmänna fullmaktsinstitutet.

I AB 04 kommer fullmakt till uttryck genom bestämmelsen om ombud och bestämmelsen om startmöte där behörighet för andra än ombuden kan klargöras. Enligt allmän fullmaktsterminologi intar beställare och entreprenör rollerna som huvudmän och deras ombud intar rollerna som mellanmän. Mellanmännen har behörighet att för sina huvudmän företa rättshandlingar med bindande verkan mot tredje man. Ombuden har i enlighet med AB 04 en långtgående behörighet att företräda sina huvudmän i frågor rörande entreprenaden samt att träffa ekonomiska och andra uppgörelser. Uppsatsen utreder vad som kan tänkas omfattas av dessa rekvisit. Mycket tyder på att behörigheten är tidsbegränsad och att ombuden utöver behörighet att beställa ÄTA-arbete, berättiga tidsförlängning och andra frågor rörande entreprenaden även har behörighet att besluta om uppgörelser av tvisteliknande karaktär.

Ur motiv till tidigare upplagor av AB 04 framgår att bestämmelsen om ombud är utformad för att uppfylla kraven för de allmänna bestämmelserna om fullmakt i andra kapitlet i Avtalslagen. Fullmaktsinstitutet får även betydelse vid en situation då AB 04:s regler inte omfattar viss situation, exempelvis då andra än ombud eller de personer som är speciellt upptagna i startmötesprotokoll vidtar rättshandlingar. Det är främst den så kallade ställningsfullmakten som regleras i Avtalslagen samt de fullmakter som utvecklats genom praxis som får betydelse. HD har genom två nyligen meddelade domar introducerat en ny typ av fullmakt, tillitsfullmakt, som är av särskilt intresse. Fullmakten har kritiserats i doktrin, främst på grund av att HD gör en uppdelning mellan fullmakter grundade på huvudmannens viljeförklaring och fullmakter grundade på tredje mans befogade tillit. Detta skymmer det faktum att tredje mans befogade tillit har betydelse även vid bedömning av andra fullmakter än den HD väljer att kalla tillitsfullmakt.

Ur ett entreprenadrättsligt perspektiv är fallen särskilt intressanta då HD slagit fast vilka omständigheter som är av särskild betydelse vid bedömningen av om befogad tillit ska anses föreligga. Omständigheterna har fått genomslag i bland annat ett entreprenadrättsligt hovrättsfall från 2016 som refereras i uppsatsen och kommer med största sannolikhet även att åberopas vid framtida entreprenadrättsliga tvister gällande behörighet. (Less)
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author
Möller, Hanna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Power of Attorney within construction contract law
course
JURM02 20162
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
fullmakt, förmögenhetsrätt, entreprenadrätt, fullmaktsrätt, AB04, ombud
language
Swedish
id
8897785
date added to LUP
2017-01-25 10:58:31
date last changed
2017-01-25 10:58:31
@misc{8897785,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this thesis is to examine the rules on power of attorney within construction contract law. To fulfill the purpose, the standard-form contract AB 04 and its articles regarding power of attorney will be examined in relation to the general regulations of power of attorney under Swedish law.

AB 04 stipulates a right for the developer and the contractor to appoint a representative. It also stipulates the possibility for the developer and the contractor to authorize others. This authorization shall be made clear at the construction start meeting. The developer and the contractor then act as grantors and their representatives as agents. When the agent acts within the scope of its authority, the grantor becomes contractually bound with the third party while the agent is not a part of the contract. The necessary conditions in the AB 04 article regarding representatives stipulates that the authority is limited to questions in relation to the construction and to make financial and other settlements. The thesis suggests that the authority is limited in time and that the representative, in addition to order ÄTA-work, approve an extension of time and other questions in relation to the construction, also holds the authority to agree on dispute resolution.

The article regarding representatives in AB 04 is designed to meet the requirements of the second chapter of the Swedish Contracts Act regarding power of attorney. The general regulation of power of attorney under Swedish law is also of importance when people, not authorized according to AB 04, are making decisions. Through two recent judgments, the Supreme Court has introduced a new type of power of attorney that is based on a third party's perception regarding the agent’s authority. This has been criticized in legal doctrine, mainly due to the fact that the Supreme Court has made a distinction between a power of attorney based on the grantor's intent and a power of attorney based on the third party's perception regarding the agent’s authority. The perception of a third party is of legal significance regardless the distinction made by the Supreme Court.

From a construction law perspective these judgments are of specific interest since the Supreme Court stated a number of circumstances of particular importance for evaluating a third persons perception regarding a representative's authority. The circumstances has been addressed in a construction law case from 2016 and will most certainly also be invoked in future construction law disputes regarding authority.},
  author       = {Möller, Hanna},
  keyword      = {fullmakt,förmögenhetsrätt,entreprenadrätt,fullmaktsrätt,AB04,ombud},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Ju fler kockar, desto sämre soppa? – Om fullmakt i entreprenadavtal},
  year         = {2016},
}