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Slum Upgrading and Community Participation - A case study on slum upgrading in Kibera

Flinck, Magnus LU (2017) In TVBP VBEM01 20161
Construction Management
Abstract
Construction projects will affect numerous actors with various interests, needs and demands.
Different project will affect different actors where their specific interests will vary depending
on project type but also throughout the projects execution. These actors are today referred to
as a project’s stakeholders. A project’s stakeholders can be defined as the individuals, groups,
or organisation, who may affect, or be affected, by a decision, activity, or outcome of a
project. Every identified stakeholder must be considered and take into account by the project
manager in order to provide successful projects. However, to meet and address all interests is
not always appropriate or not even feasible and limitations in resources entails... (More)
Construction projects will affect numerous actors with various interests, needs and demands.
Different project will affect different actors where their specific interests will vary depending
on project type but also throughout the projects execution. These actors are today referred to
as a project’s stakeholders. A project’s stakeholders can be defined as the individuals, groups,
or organisation, who may affect, or be affected, by a decision, activity, or outcome of a
project. Every identified stakeholder must be considered and take into account by the project
manager in order to provide successful projects. However, to meet and address all interests is
not always appropriate or not even feasible and limitations in resources entails that managers
must prioritise certain stakeholders and ignore others. The key objective in today’s projects
management is therefore to achieve satisfaction among, and create as much value as possible
for, the projects stakeholders. Stakeholder’s can have a positive as well as a negative impact
on a project and managers must therefore plan for projects that maximize the positives and
prevent or minimise the negatives.
The stakeholder concept plays an important role in todays project management. Managers
must be well aware of who the project’s stakeholders are, what interest they have, as well as
their potential impact on the project, to be able to correctly manage the stakeholders. The
general stakeholder management process consists of stakeholder identification and gathering
relevant information, analyse stakeholders and their potential impact, and at last, developing
adequate management strategies. Stakeholder analysis is often used as a tool in the
stakeholder management process to gathering adequate stakeholder information in order to
determine how different stakeholders should be managed. Stakeholder participation is a
common management strategy. Participation can improve projects designs and effectiveness
and it increase the projects sustainability. It can also create a more cost-effective
implementation since the project cost to some extent can be shared with some of the
stakeholders.
This research has adapted the stakeholder concept to construction projects in slums and
informal settlements. These types of projects is often referred to as slum upgrading, which is
a process that include all the physical, social, economic, organizational and environmental
improvements of the slum. This study focuses on the actors that living in these settlements
and participation involvement of these actors (community participation). The purpose of the
study is to analyse and contribute with understanding in how suitable stakeholder
management and adequate participation processes can increase upgrading projects success.
The aim is to develop a participatory strategy suitable for the community stakeholders and
provide key factors that are essential for slum upgrading to be successful.
The general research process aims at identify relevant stakeholders, to obtain stakeholder
information, and to analyse stakeholders’ potential impact in a project. Based on this a
community participation strategy has further been developed. A literature review was
undertaken in the beginning of the study to create awareness to the subject and gain
understanding in slums, informal settlements, and stakeholder theory. A case study was used
as a method to identify the stakeholders and to gain knowledge on the community’s view on
slum upgrading and participation as well as gathering relevant stakeholder information. A
stakeholder analysis was carried out in order to understand and determine identified
stakeholder impact and influence. The specific case was the on going slum upgrading in
Nairobi’s biggest slum, Kibera.
4
Following community based stakeholders have been identified in this study:
• Beneficiaries
• Residents in vicinity
• Representatives
• Resources
• Key actors
Firstly, beneficiaries of the projects and residents in vicinity are actors that have been
included in the analysis and considered as community stakeholders. In addition to these, the
study proposes three community-based actors; representatives, resources and key actors
which been distinguished through their resource potential (resources), activeness
(representatives) and relevance (key actors). These actors have been defined so they can be
analysed, regardless project type. Each and every identified stakeholder’s impact and
influence was than determined in different project phases and a suitable community
participation strategy was developed. The study also explain why the stakeholder approach is
particular important in slum upgrading and how community participation increasing slum
upgrading projects sucess.
The study concludes by proposing three key factors that are essential for slum upgrading to be
successful. These factors have been developed based on the empirical study, observations, the
literature, and the stakeholder analysis and can be summarized as:
• Adequate stakeholder analysis
• Efficient participation
• Information and communication
The study can show the major impact adequate stakeholder analysis have in slum upgrading
projects. To correctly identify, manage and analyse stakeholders entails that for the project
valuable information and data can be obtained. In the lack of such processes, project will
struggle to address major interests and relevant stakeholders.
The study can also show the great benefits of having the community participating throughout
the projects. The community possess information, skills and expertise that could be of great
value for the projects execution. Different projects however, have different actors, and have
different aims and objectives. Some actors may not be needed in certain projects or phases
while others are crucial. An efficient participation strategy must therefore be well suited for
the projects purpose and for the relevant actors.
At last, information and communication is a crucial part in the on going slum upgrading.
Without efficient communication channels and reliable information flows the community will
feel neglected and mistreated. This increases the risks of unnecessary opposition and
irritation, which in turn can have major impact on the projects execution. (Less)
Popular Abstract (Swedish)
Byggnadsprojekt påverkar en rad olika aktörer som har olika intressen, behov och krav.
Vidare gäller att olika projekt påverkar olika typer av aktörer vars intressen beror på typ av
projekt och i vilket det givna projektet befinner sig i. Dessa aktörer benämns idag som ett
projekts intressenter. Man kan definiera intressenter som individer, grupper av personer, eller
organisationer som påverkas av, eller kan påverka, företags utfall, beslut eller aktiviteter. För
att skapa framgångsrika projekt är det viktigt ansvariga och beslutsfattare att beakta samtliga
intressenter samt deras intressen och behov. Samtidigt är det inte alltid lönsamt eller ens
möjligt att tillgodose allas intressen. Begränsade resurser gör istället att företag,... (More)
Byggnadsprojekt påverkar en rad olika aktörer som har olika intressen, behov och krav.
Vidare gäller att olika projekt påverkar olika typer av aktörer vars intressen beror på typ av
projekt och i vilket det givna projektet befinner sig i. Dessa aktörer benämns idag som ett
projekts intressenter. Man kan definiera intressenter som individer, grupper av personer, eller
organisationer som påverkas av, eller kan påverka, företags utfall, beslut eller aktiviteter. För
att skapa framgångsrika projekt är det viktigt ansvariga och beslutsfattare att beakta samtliga
intressenter samt deras intressen och behov. Samtidigt är det inte alltid lönsamt eller ens
möjligt att tillgodose allas intressen. Begränsade resurser gör istället att företag, projekt och
organisationer måste prioritera vissa aktörer och till viss del ignorera andra. Projektledningars
mål bör vara att till största möjliga mån tillfredsställa och skapa mervärde för projektets
intressenter. Intressenter kan ha såväl positiv som negativ påverkan på ett projekt och det
gäller därför att planering främjar positiv påverkan och förhindrar negativ.
Intressentteorin har en betydande roll i dagens arbete inom projektledning. För att kunna
hantera olika intressenter på ett effektivt och korrekt sätt måste man vara väl medvetna om
vilka intressenterna är, vad för typ av intressen de har, samt vad för påverkan de kan ha på
projektet. Den generella intressenthantering består generellt av fyra processer; identifiering av
intressenter, samla relevant information, analysera intressenterna samt utveckla strategier för
hur dessa bör hanteras. Intressentanalys är ett verktyg som används för att systematiskt samla
på sig värdefull information om intressenter för att senare kunna värdera vilka aktörer som
spelar roll samt på vilka sätt. Intressentinvolvering eller intressentdeltagande är en process
som avser hantering av intressenter. Den innebär att intressenter får en möjlighet att delta i
olika skeden och processer i projekten vilket i sin tur kan förbättra projektens, design
utförande samt hållbarhet. Vid fall där detta är möjligt kan även projektkostnaden till viss del
delas med de aktörer som deltar.
Den här studien har anpassat intressentteorin till byggnadsprojekt i slummen, så kallade
slumuppgraderingsprojekt. Studien har fokuserat på de aktörer som bor och verkar i slummen
och hur dessa aktörer kan och bör involveras i projekten. Syftet med studien har varit att
analysera och bidra med kunskap kring hur kvalificerad intressenthantering och lämpliga
involveringsprocesser kan öka projekts framgångar. Målet har varit att utveckla en strategi för
hur relevanta aktörer i slummen bör involveras i dessa projekt. Målet har också varit att ta
fram särskilt viktiga områden som är nödvändiga för att dessa projekt ska lyckas.
Själva undersökningsprocessen ämnar ta identifiera relevanta intressenter, erhålla värdefull
information, samt analysera identifierades intressenter påverkan. En involveringsplan har
sedan utvecklats och tagits fram baserad på denna information. I början av studien gicks
litteratur igenom för att gå en inblick i ämnet och skapa förståelse kring intressentteorin och
slummiljöer. En fallstudie genomfördes för att identifiera intressenter och samla information
om slumsamhället i sig och dess invånare, samt skapa en djupare förståelse kring hur dessa
invånare ser på slumuppgraderingsprojekten och potentiella involveringsplaner. En
intressentanalys genomfördes för att förstå och bestämma identifierade aktörers potentiella
påverkan på projekten. Det obesvarade fallet var den pågående slummuppgraderingen i
Nairobis största slum, Kibera.
6
Från studien har följande typer av intressenter kunnat identifieras:
• Mottagare/kunder
• Närboende
• Representanter
• Resurser
• Nyckelaktörer
Mottagare och närboende är två självklara intressentgrupper inom byggnadsprojekt. Inom
slumuppgradering är dessa grupper verksamma inom slummen och har därför tagits med i
efterföljande analys. Vidare har tre attribut tagits fram för att särskilja och definiera andra
potentiella intressenter inom slummen. Aktörer inom slummen har i denna uppsats definierats
efter deras potential att verka som en resurs (resurs), deras aktivitet (representanter), samt
deras relevans (nyckelaktörer) för projektet. Dessa har definierats på ett sätt som gör att de
kan analyseras oavsett vad för typ av uppgraderingsprojekt det handlar om. Varje enskild
intressents påverkan har vidare tagits fram i de olika faserna i ett byggnadsprojekt och en
lämplig involveringsplan har utvecklats baserat på detta. Studien förklarar även hur denna
involveringsplan kan öka projekts framgång och varför intressentperspektivet är särskilt
viktigt inom slumuppgradering.
Studien avslutar med att fastställa tre områden som är särskilt viktiga för att
slumuppgradering ska kunna lyckas. Dessa kan ses som en sammanställning av empirin,
litteraturen, intressentanalysen och övriga observationer:
• Lämplig intressentanalys
• Effektiva involveringsstrategier
• Information och kommunikation
Studien visar tydligt på intressentanalysens roll i dessa projekt. Att kunna identifiera, hantera
och analysera intressenter medför att tillförlitlig information kan erhållas av projektledning
som vidare kan vara värdefull för projektets utförande. Utan detta verktyg kommer projekt få
svårt att förstå intressenter och deras respektive intressen, behov och krav.
Studien visar klart och tydligt på de fördelar som kommer med att låta vissa aktörer vara
involverande och delta i projekten. Detta eftersom de besitter värdefull kunskap, expertis och
kunskap som kan vara till stor nytta under projektets gång. Samtidigt har projekt olika syften
och mål samt påverkar olika intressenter. Vissa aktörer är vitala i ett projekt medan de inte
behövs alls i andra. En effektiv deltagandestrategi måste därför vara väl anpassad för
projektets syfte och mål samt deltagande aktörer.
Till sist har studien påvisat vikten av tillförlitlig information och kommunikation i dessa
projekt. Utan dessa kanaler finns det en stor risk att samhället kommer känna sig utanför och
försummade av projekten. Detta ökar risken för onödig irritation och motstånd vilket i sin tur
kan påverka projekten negativt. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Flinck, Magnus LU
supervisor
organization
course
VBEM01 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Stakeholder management, stakeholder analysis, community participation, Slum upgrading, Slums, Kibera
publication/series
TVBP
report number
5550
ISSN
1651-0380
language
English
additional info
Handledare: Stefan Olander
Examinator: Anne Landin
id
8904480
date added to LUP
2017-06-22 09:58:05
date last changed
2019-10-08 10:28:56
@misc{8904480,
  abstract     = {Construction projects will affect numerous actors with various interests, needs and demands.
Different project will affect different actors where their specific interests will vary depending
on project type but also throughout the projects execution. These actors are today referred to
as a project’s stakeholders. A project’s stakeholders can be defined as the individuals, groups,
or organisation, who may affect, or be affected, by a decision, activity, or outcome of a
project. Every identified stakeholder must be considered and take into account by the project
manager in order to provide successful projects. However, to meet and address all interests is
not always appropriate or not even feasible and limitations in resources entails that managers
must prioritise certain stakeholders and ignore others. The key objective in today’s projects
management is therefore to achieve satisfaction among, and create as much value as possible
for, the projects stakeholders. Stakeholder’s can have a positive as well as a negative impact
on a project and managers must therefore plan for projects that maximize the positives and
prevent or minimise the negatives.
The stakeholder concept plays an important role in todays project management. Managers
must be well aware of who the project’s stakeholders are, what interest they have, as well as
their potential impact on the project, to be able to correctly manage the stakeholders. The
general stakeholder management process consists of stakeholder identification and gathering
relevant information, analyse stakeholders and their potential impact, and at last, developing
adequate management strategies. Stakeholder analysis is often used as a tool in the
stakeholder management process to gathering adequate stakeholder information in order to
determine how different stakeholders should be managed. Stakeholder participation is a
common management strategy. Participation can improve projects designs and effectiveness
and it increase the projects sustainability. It can also create a more cost-effective
implementation since the project cost to some extent can be shared with some of the
stakeholders.
This research has adapted the stakeholder concept to construction projects in slums and
informal settlements. These types of projects is often referred to as slum upgrading, which is
a process that include all the physical, social, economic, organizational and environmental
improvements of the slum. This study focuses on the actors that living in these settlements
and participation involvement of these actors (community participation). The purpose of the
study is to analyse and contribute with understanding in how suitable stakeholder
management and adequate participation processes can increase upgrading projects success.
The aim is to develop a participatory strategy suitable for the community stakeholders and
provide key factors that are essential for slum upgrading to be successful.
The general research process aims at identify relevant stakeholders, to obtain stakeholder
information, and to analyse stakeholders’ potential impact in a project. Based on this a
community participation strategy has further been developed. A literature review was
undertaken in the beginning of the study to create awareness to the subject and gain
understanding in slums, informal settlements, and stakeholder theory. A case study was used
as a method to identify the stakeholders and to gain knowledge on the community’s view on
slum upgrading and participation as well as gathering relevant stakeholder information. A
stakeholder analysis was carried out in order to understand and determine identified
stakeholder impact and influence. The specific case was the on going slum upgrading in
Nairobi’s biggest slum, Kibera.
4
Following community based stakeholders have been identified in this study:
• Beneficiaries
• Residents in vicinity
• Representatives
• Resources
• Key actors
Firstly, beneficiaries of the projects and residents in vicinity are actors that have been
included in the analysis and considered as community stakeholders. In addition to these, the
study proposes three community-based actors; representatives, resources and key actors
which been distinguished through their resource potential (resources), activeness
(representatives) and relevance (key actors). These actors have been defined so they can be
analysed, regardless project type. Each and every identified stakeholder’s impact and
influence was than determined in different project phases and a suitable community
participation strategy was developed. The study also explain why the stakeholder approach is
particular important in slum upgrading and how community participation increasing slum
upgrading projects sucess.
The study concludes by proposing three key factors that are essential for slum upgrading to be
successful. These factors have been developed based on the empirical study, observations, the
literature, and the stakeholder analysis and can be summarized as:
• Adequate stakeholder analysis
• Efficient participation
• Information and communication
The study can show the major impact adequate stakeholder analysis have in slum upgrading
projects. To correctly identify, manage and analyse stakeholders entails that for the project
valuable information and data can be obtained. In the lack of such processes, project will
struggle to address major interests and relevant stakeholders.
The study can also show the great benefits of having the community participating throughout
the projects. The community possess information, skills and expertise that could be of great
value for the projects execution. Different projects however, have different actors, and have
different aims and objectives. Some actors may not be needed in certain projects or phases
while others are crucial. An efficient participation strategy must therefore be well suited for
the projects purpose and for the relevant actors.
At last, information and communication is a crucial part in the on going slum upgrading.
Without efficient communication channels and reliable information flows the community will
feel neglected and mistreated. This increases the risks of unnecessary opposition and
irritation, which in turn can have major impact on the projects execution.},
  author       = {Flinck, Magnus},
  issn         = {1651-0380},
  keyword      = {Stakeholder management,stakeholder analysis,community participation,Slum upgrading,Slums,Kibera},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {TVBP},
  title        = {Slum Upgrading and Community Participation - A case study on slum upgrading in Kibera},
  year         = {2017},
}