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Lämplig eller olämplig förälder? - En analys av lämplighetsprövningarna inför insemination och adoption utifrån ett barnperspektiv

Wiberg Hammar, Desirée LU (2017) LAGF03 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Två vanliga metoder för att avhjälpa ofrivillig barnlöshet är insemination och adoption. Ett par som vill få barn genom insemination respektive adoption måste genomgå en lämplighetsprövning, vars syfte är att tillgodose barnets bästa. Endast de par som bedöms som lämpliga föräldrar beviljas insemination respektive adoption. Trots att lämplighetsprövningarna i de två processerna har samma syfte, föreligger vissa skillnader mellan prövningarna. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka huruvida skillnaderna mellan lämplighetsprövningarna av det ansökande paret inför insemination respektive adoption är motiverade utifrån ett barnperspektiv. Med barnperspektiv avses att lämplighetsprövningarna analyseras utifrån principen om barnets bästa.
... (More)
Två vanliga metoder för att avhjälpa ofrivillig barnlöshet är insemination och adoption. Ett par som vill få barn genom insemination respektive adoption måste genomgå en lämplighetsprövning, vars syfte är att tillgodose barnets bästa. Endast de par som bedöms som lämpliga föräldrar beviljas insemination respektive adoption. Trots att lämplighetsprövningarna i de två processerna har samma syfte, föreligger vissa skillnader mellan prövningarna. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka huruvida skillnaderna mellan lämplighetsprövningarna av det ansökande paret inför insemination respektive adoption är motiverade utifrån ett barnperspektiv. Med barnperspektiv avses att lämplighetsprövningarna analyseras utifrån principen om barnets bästa.
Vad gäller barnets bästa ger varken svensk eller internationell rätt någon direkt definition av principens innebörd. Istället sägs det att barnets bästa fastställs utifrån en helhetsbedömning i det specifika fallet, med beaktande av barnets behov och intressen. Några rättigheter ur internationella konventioner, framförallt barnkonventionen, framhålls också som särskilt viktiga att beakta vid bedömningen av vad som är barnets bästa inför insemination respektive adoption. I övrigt beaktas allmänna familjerättsliga normer för att ge ytterligare vägledning i vad som anses vara barnets bästa. Vid en jämförelse av lämplighetsprövningarna kan det konstateras att prövningarna skiljer sig åt avseende åldersprövningen, kravet på att vara sambo respektive gift, samt vem som tar beslutet huruvida ett par anses vara lämpliga föräldrar. Lämplighetsprövningen inför adoption visar sig, i sin helhet, vara mycket mer omfattande än den prövning som föregår ett beslut om insemination. När skillnaderna analyseras utifrån ett barnperspektiv tycks vissa skillnader kunna motiveras utifrån barnets bästa, medan andra inte kan det. Den viktigaste slutsatsen är att adoption, till skillnad från insemination, avser ett barn som redan finns till och som många gånger har särskilda behov till följd av tidigare svårigheter i livet. Utifrån ett barnperspektiv tycks det därmed rimligt att lämplighetsprövningen inför adoption är mer omfattande än lämplighetsprövningen inför insemination. Avslutningsvis är det endast inför adoption som det finns ett krav på att barnets bästa ska gå före alla andra intressen. (Less)
Abstract
Two common methods to treat involuntary infertility are insemination and adoption. A couple who wants to have children through insemination or adoption must undergo a suitability test, that has the purpose of considering the best interests of the child. A couple must therefore be considered as suitable parents in order to have a child through insemination or adoption. Despite the fact that both suitability tests have the same purpose, there are some differences between the tests. The purpose of this essay is to examine whether the differences between the suitability tests of couples before insemination and adoption are justified from a child’s perspective. In this essay, applying a child’s perspective means examining the suitability tests... (More)
Two common methods to treat involuntary infertility are insemination and adoption. A couple who wants to have children through insemination or adoption must undergo a suitability test, that has the purpose of considering the best interests of the child. A couple must therefore be considered as suitable parents in order to have a child through insemination or adoption. Despite the fact that both suitability tests have the same purpose, there are some differences between the tests. The purpose of this essay is to examine whether the differences between the suitability tests of couples before insemination and adoption are justified from a child’s perspective. In this essay, applying a child’s perspective means examining the suitability tests from the point of view that the best interests of the child shall be taken as a primary consideration. However, neither Swedish nor international law provides a clear definition of the best interests of the child. Instead, it is said that the best interests of the child are determined through an overall assessment in the specific case, taking both the needs and interests of the child into account. International law, principally the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, provides some specific rights that need to be considered when determining what is the best for the child in questions concerning insemination and adoption. In addition, there are some general norms of family law which provide further guidance on what is considered to be the best interests of the child.
When comparing the two suitability tests, it is found that the two tests differ in respect of the age test, the requirement to be cohabitant and married, as well as who decides if the couple is considered to be suitable parents. The suitability test before adoption appears, in whole, to be far more extensive than the suitability test before insemination. When examining these differences from a child’s perspective, it seems as if some differences can be justified by the best interests of the child, while others cannot. The most important conclusion is that adoption, unlike insemination, refers to a child who already exists and who often has special needs as a result of past difficulties in life. Therefore, from a child’s perspective, it seems reasonable that the suitability test before adoption is more extensive than the suitability test before insemination. In conclusion, it is only for adoption that there is a requirement that the best interests of the child shall prevail over all other interests. (Less)
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author
Wiberg Hammar, Desirée LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20171
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
familjerätt, family law, insemination, adoption, lämplighetsprövning, barnets bästa
language
Swedish
id
8908218
date added to LUP
2017-06-29 15:58:01
date last changed
2017-06-29 15:58:01
@misc{8908218,
  abstract     = {Two common methods to treat involuntary infertility are insemination and adoption. A couple who wants to have children through insemination or adoption must undergo a suitability test, that has the purpose of considering the best interests of the child. A couple must therefore be considered as suitable parents in order to have a child through insemination or adoption. Despite the fact that both suitability tests have the same purpose, there are some differences between the tests. The purpose of this essay is to examine whether the differences between the suitability tests of couples before insemination and adoption are justified from a child’s perspective. In this essay, applying a child’s perspective means examining the suitability tests from the point of view that the best interests of the child shall be taken as a primary consideration. However, neither Swedish nor international law provides a clear definition of the best interests of the child. Instead, it is said that the best interests of the child are determined through an overall assessment in the specific case, taking both the needs and interests of the child into account. International law, principally the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, provides some specific rights that need to be considered when determining what is the best for the child in questions concerning insemination and adoption. In addition, there are some general norms of family law which provide further guidance on what is considered to be the best interests of the child.
When comparing the two suitability tests, it is found that the two tests differ in respect of the age test, the requirement to be cohabitant and married, as well as who decides if the couple is considered to be suitable parents. The suitability test before adoption appears, in whole, to be far more extensive than the suitability test before insemination. When examining these differences from a child’s perspective, it seems as if some differences can be justified by the best interests of the child, while others cannot. The most important conclusion is that adoption, unlike insemination, refers to a child who already exists and who often has special needs as a result of past difficulties in life. Therefore, from a child’s perspective, it seems reasonable that the suitability test before adoption is more extensive than the suitability test before insemination. In conclusion, it is only for adoption that there is a requirement that the best interests of the child shall prevail over all other interests.},
  author       = {Wiberg Hammar, Desirée},
  keyword      = {familjerätt,family law,insemination,adoption,lämplighetsprövning,barnets bästa},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Lämplig eller olämplig förälder? - En analys av lämplighetsprövningarna inför insemination och adoption utifrån ett barnperspektiv},
  year         = {2017},
}