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Brandteknisk Riskvärdering Punkt Galleria Västerås

Persson, Joar LU ; Eklöf, Hanna; Hammarberg, Johanna and Neckfors, Torbjörn (2017) VBR054 20171
Division of Fire Safety Engineering
Abstract
The following is a fire-safety-risk-assessment with the purpose of evaluating the safety of the shopping center Punkt in Västerås, Sweden. The risk assessment is an assignment in the course Brandteknisk Riskvärdering given at Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lunds University, Sweden.
Punkt is a shopping center on floor 3 and 3.5 of a 9-story building. The assessment will focus on the possibility of safely evacuating the building in case of a fire, and limits itself to the part of the shopping mall situated on floor 3. The goal of the assessment is to identify flaws that pose a threat to persons evacuating the building. Additionally to identifying flaws, possible solutions will be proposed and investigated.
The parameters to investigate are the... (More)
The following is a fire-safety-risk-assessment with the purpose of evaluating the safety of the shopping center Punkt in Västerås, Sweden. The risk assessment is an assignment in the course Brandteknisk Riskvärdering given at Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lunds University, Sweden.
Punkt is a shopping center on floor 3 and 3.5 of a 9-story building. The assessment will focus on the possibility of safely evacuating the building in case of a fire, and limits itself to the part of the shopping mall situated on floor 3. The goal of the assessment is to identify flaws that pose a threat to persons evacuating the building. Additionally to identifying flaws, possible solutions will be proposed and investigated.
The parameters to investigate are the height of the smoke layer, heat radiation on persons, sight, toxicity and temperature. Levels were decided where the parameters are considered hazardous to health and safety of people evacuating Punkt.
During a visit to Punkt, a series of potentially dangerous scenarios were identified and compared. Three scenarios were chosen for deeper analysis, having been considered more hazardous than the rest.
In the café Espresso House, a scenario was identified where people on the upper floor were blocked off from evacuating due to a fire in a trashcan and furniture at the base of the stairs. After having analyzed the scenario, it could be determined that the layer of hot gases from the fire descended to unacceptable heights. Furthermore, it was established that the radiation from the flames to the stair reached hazardous levels. A solution was investigated where the fuel load was changed by replacing the furniture next to the trashcan. It could be shown that Espresso House can safely be evacuated after the change. However, should one of the pieces of furniture be moved closer to the stair, the radiation would again reach critical levels. In the clothes store New Yorker, a scenario was identified where visitors were cut off from evacuation due to a clothes stand set aflame. The investigation resulted in no hazardous effects to health on
visitors to the store. A scenario in the main corridor of the shopping center was identified where Christmas decorations caught fire and blocked part of the evacuation routes, resulting in long distances of egress. Due to the size and heat radiation of the fire, it could be determined that the only available exit for movement impaired persons was blocked off to people on the wrong side of the corridor. Aside from this the scenario results in no hazard to health for the duration of the simulation.
In addition to proposing and investigating possible corrections to the facility, a sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the margin of safety the system provides. In Espresso House the fuel load was increased by an extra chair, which resulted no additional danger to visitors in its original placement. In New Yorker the width of the passage by the fire was decreased, which resulted in critical levels of heat radiation. In the main corridor, the effect of the fire was doubled, which led to hazardous levels of the hot gas layer.
Some conclusions drawn from the risk assessment are as follows:
Installation of a safe place for movement-impaired persons or a ramp on which to exit isdemanded by Entrances 3 or 4 (east end).
The furniture next to the trashcan in Espresso House must be removed altogether.
An outdated sign in Espresso House must be brought up to date with the current standards.
New Yorker must include in their fire safety routines to ensure safe placement of their
clothing racks.
Exits for movement-impaired persons must include appropriate signage.
Backup power for the emergency lighting in the building must be ensured.
The following adjustments are recommended to increase the margins of fire safety in regards to
evacuation:
Instructions regarding the amount of combustible material and its placement in the main
walkway.
Restricting the amount of material containing PVC in the building.
Complementing a doorway in Espresso House with a ramp to make exiting easier.
Ensuring functionality of the rotating doors in the entrances to the shopping center.
Updating fire safety routines with information containing the importance of product
placement in regards to fire safety.
Ensuring that the fire safety routines are known and followed by employees in respective
store.
A safety escape route in the upper part of the store Intersport.
Older sprinkler bulbs’ functionality ensured.
Functionality of fire dampers in the ventilation ducts investigated and ensured.
The shopping center should investigate the possibility of increasing security against arson (Less)
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author
Persson, Joar LU ; Eklöf, Hanna; Hammarberg, Johanna and Neckfors, Torbjörn
supervisor
organization
course
VBR054 20171
year
type
L3 - Miscellaneous, Projetcs etc.
subject
keywords
Fire safety evaluation, fire, evacuation, Pathfinder, Fire Dynamics Simulation, mall
report number
9505
language
Swedish
id
8909765
date added to LUP
2017-06-09 15:13:15
date last changed
2017-06-09 15:13:15
@misc{8909765,
  abstract     = {The following is a fire-safety-risk-assessment with the purpose of evaluating the safety of the shopping center Punkt in Västerås, Sweden. The risk assessment is an assignment in the course Brandteknisk Riskvärdering given at Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lunds University, Sweden.
Punkt is a shopping center on floor 3 and 3.5 of a 9-story building. The assessment will focus on the possibility of safely evacuating the building in case of a fire, and limits itself to the part of the shopping mall situated on floor 3. The goal of the assessment is to identify flaws that pose a threat to persons evacuating the building. Additionally to identifying flaws, possible solutions will be proposed and investigated.
The parameters to investigate are the height of the smoke layer, heat radiation on persons, sight, toxicity and temperature. Levels were decided where the parameters are considered hazardous to health and safety of people evacuating Punkt.
During a visit to Punkt, a series of potentially dangerous scenarios were identified and compared. Three scenarios were chosen for deeper analysis, having been considered more hazardous than the rest.
In the café Espresso House, a scenario was identified where people on the upper floor were blocked off from evacuating due to a fire in a trashcan and furniture at the base of the stairs. After having analyzed the scenario, it could be determined that the layer of hot gases from the fire descended to unacceptable heights. Furthermore, it was established that the radiation from the flames to the stair reached hazardous levels. A solution was investigated where the fuel load was changed by replacing the furniture next to the trashcan. It could be shown that Espresso House can safely be evacuated after the change. However, should one of the pieces of furniture be moved closer to the stair, the radiation would again reach critical levels. In the clothes store New Yorker, a scenario was identified where visitors were cut off from evacuation due to a clothes stand set aflame. The investigation resulted in no hazardous effects to health on
visitors to the store. A scenario in the main corridor of the shopping center was identified where Christmas decorations caught fire and blocked part of the evacuation routes, resulting in long distances of egress. Due to the size and heat radiation of the fire, it could be determined that the only available exit for movement impaired persons was blocked off to people on the wrong side of the corridor. Aside from this the scenario results in no hazard to health for the duration of the simulation.
In addition to proposing and investigating possible corrections to the facility, a sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the margin of safety the system provides. In Espresso House the fuel load was increased by an extra chair, which resulted no additional danger to visitors in its original placement. In New Yorker the width of the passage by the fire was decreased, which resulted in critical levels of heat radiation. In the main corridor, the effect of the fire was doubled, which led to hazardous levels of the hot gas layer.
Some conclusions drawn from the risk assessment are as follows:
 Installation of a safe place for movement-impaired persons or a ramp on which to exit isdemanded by Entrances 3 or 4 (east end).
 The furniture next to the trashcan in Espresso House must be removed altogether.
 An outdated sign in Espresso House must be brought up to date with the current standards.
 New Yorker must include in their fire safety routines to ensure safe placement of their
clothing racks.
 Exits for movement-impaired persons must include appropriate signage.
 Backup power for the emergency lighting in the building must be ensured.
The following adjustments are recommended to increase the margins of fire safety in regards to
evacuation:
 Instructions regarding the amount of combustible material and its placement in the main
walkway.
 Restricting the amount of material containing PVC in the building.
 Complementing a doorway in Espresso House with a ramp to make exiting easier.
 Ensuring functionality of the rotating doors in the entrances to the shopping center.
 Updating fire safety routines with information containing the importance of product
placement in regards to fire safety.
 Ensuring that the fire safety routines are known and followed by employees in respective
store.
 A safety escape route in the upper part of the store Intersport.
 Older sprinkler bulbs’ functionality ensured.
 Functionality of fire dampers in the ventilation ducts investigated and ensured.
 The shopping center should investigate the possibility of increasing security against arson},
  author       = {Persson, Joar and Eklöf, Hanna and Hammarberg, Johanna and Neckfors, Torbjörn},
  keyword      = {Fire safety evaluation,fire,evacuation,Pathfinder,Fire Dynamics Simulation,mall},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Brandteknisk Riskvärdering Punkt Galleria Västerås},
  year         = {2017},
}