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Den förnybara framtiden - en rättsekonomisk analys av det svenska elcertifikatsystemet

Åberg, Philip LU (2017) JURM02 20171
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
För att uppnå nationella klimat- och miljömål måste den förnybara elproduktionen i Sverige öka inom de närmaste decennierna. Det svenska elcertifikatsystemet är ett marknadsbaserat finansiellt stödsystem med målet att skapa incitament till en ökad förnybar elproduktion. Uppsatsen syftar till att förmedla en överblick av elcertifikatsystemet som är reglerat genom lagen (2011:1200) om elcertifikat. Framställningen syftar även till att, utifrån miljöekonomisk teori, beskriva varför det finns ett stödsystem som subventionerar dagens elmarknad. Avslutningsvis jämförs det svenska elcertifikatsystemet med ett alternativt stödsystem som nyligen har introducerats i Tyskland, nämligen ett auktionssystem. Den avslutande jämförelsen avser att... (More)
För att uppnå nationella klimat- och miljömål måste den förnybara elproduktionen i Sverige öka inom de närmaste decennierna. Det svenska elcertifikatsystemet är ett marknadsbaserat finansiellt stödsystem med målet att skapa incitament till en ökad förnybar elproduktion. Uppsatsen syftar till att förmedla en överblick av elcertifikatsystemet som är reglerat genom lagen (2011:1200) om elcertifikat. Framställningen syftar även till att, utifrån miljöekonomisk teori, beskriva varför det finns ett stödsystem som subventionerar dagens elmarknad. Avslutningsvis jämförs det svenska elcertifikatsystemet med ett alternativt stödsystem som nyligen har introducerats i Tyskland, nämligen ett auktionssystem. Den avslutande jämförelsen avser att analysera vilket system som är mest ändamålsenligt utformat för att uppnå de högt satta klimatmålen. För att kunna besvara de frågeställningar uppsatsen behandlar används både en rättsdogmatisk och en rättsekonomisk metod.

Ett elcertifikat tilldelas vissa elproducenter för varje megawattimme förnybar el de producerar. Det finansiella stödet eller den extra intäkt utöver elen som säljs uppstår genom att certifikaten säljs till andra aktörer, som har en skyldighet att köpa dessa, på en öppen marknad. Mängden certifikat som måste köpas bestäms av en så kallad kvotplikt. Kvotplikten styr därmed efterfrågan på elcertifikat på marknaden. Systemet har hittills skapat incitament till ökad förnybar elproduktion, samtidigt som elpriserna har förhållit sig låga. Elcertifikatsystemets nuvarande utformning riskerar däremot att bidra med fluktuerande priser på certifikaten, vilket resulterar i en lägre subvention till elproducenterna. När lönsamheten minskar avtar även incitamenten hos elproducenterna till att satsa på en ökad teknikutveckling.

Enligt miljöekonomisk teori uppstår så kallade negativa externaliteter, det vill säga, effekter som drabbar någon annan än verksamheten, vid icke-förnybar elproduktion. Detta kan exempelvis bestå av luftföroreningar i form av utsläpp. Negativa externaliteter utgör kostnader för samhället som utsläppskällan inte tar hänsyn till vid produktionen. Enligt ekonomisk teori måste kostnaderna för dessa föroreningar återföras, vilket innebär att de internaliseras tillbaka till ursprungskällan för att elmarknaden ska fungera på ett samhällsekonomiskt optimalt sätt. Internaliseringen sker bäst genom att påföra utsläppskällorna en miljöskatt. Svårigheterna i att applicera en miljöskatt ligger i att uppskatta hur stor den samhälleliga kostnaden är. Om en felaktig skattesats appliceras har miljöskatten misslyckats i sitt syfte att internalisera negativa externaliteter. Att samtidigt subventionera ett annat produktionsslag på samma marknad kan motiveras genom att de långsiktiga, dynamiska effekterna blir positiva och att elmarknaden gradvis tenderar till att överge de produktionssätt som genererar negativa externa effekter.

Enligt en ramöverenskommelse, Energiöverenskommelsen, formulerad år 2016 ska Sveriges totala elproduktion komma från helt förnybara energikällor år 2040. För att ändamålsenligt uppnå detta högt ställda mål grundar sig uppsatsens jämförande analys i systemens förmåga att ge elproducenterna incitament till en ökad förnybar elproduktion samt att ge ökade incitament till att utveckla nya effektiva tekniker. Efter att ha analyserat de effekter som uppstår vid en tillämpning av de olika stödsystemen möjliggör det tyska auktionssystemet en stabil och på förhand säkerställd subvention vilket stimulerar ökade incitament i större utsträckning än vid en tillämpning av det svenska elcertifikatsystemet. (Less)
Abstract
In order to achieve the national climate and environmental objectives, the renewable energy production in Sweden must increase within the next few decades. The Swedish green certificate system (Sw: elcertifikatsystemet) is a market-based financial support system aimed at creating incentives for increased renewable energy production. The purpose of this thesis is to present an overview of the electricity certificate system, which is regulated in the Green Certificate Act 2011 (Sw: elcertifikatlagen). Furthermore, the purpose is to describe the reasons behind a support system or subsidy on today's electricity market, from an environmental economic perspective. The green certificate system is also analysed and compared next to an alternative... (More)
In order to achieve the national climate and environmental objectives, the renewable energy production in Sweden must increase within the next few decades. The Swedish green certificate system (Sw: elcertifikatsystemet) is a market-based financial support system aimed at creating incentives for increased renewable energy production. The purpose of this thesis is to present an overview of the electricity certificate system, which is regulated in the Green Certificate Act 2011 (Sw: elcertifikatlagen). Furthermore, the purpose is to describe the reasons behind a support system or subsidy on today's electricity market, from an environmental economic perspective. The green certificate system is also analysed and compared next to an alternative support system, which was recently introduced in Germany, namely an auction system on renewable energy. The purpose of the comparison is to analyse which system is most appropriately designed to achieve the national climate objectives. In order to answer the issues set out in this thesis, a legal as well as an economic approach is used.

A green certificate is awarded to certain electricity producers for every megawatt hour of produced renewable electricity. The financial support, in addition to the electricity sold, arises from the sale of the certificates to other market participants who are required to purchase the certificates. The amount of certificates that must be purchased on the market is determined by a so-called quota obligation (Sw: kvotplikt). Hereby, the quota obligation controls the demand for green certificates on the electricity market. So far, the system has increased the total volume of produced renewable electricity in Sweden and at the same time, the electricity price has remained low. On the other hand, the current design of the green certificate system is likely to contribute to fluctuating prices on the certificates, resulting in a lower subsidy to electricity producers. If the electricity producer’s profit decreases, the incentives of making technology developments will most likely also decrease.

According to environmental economic theory, so-called negative externalities arise from non-renewable electricity production. A negative externality is a cost that is suffered by a third party as a result of an economic transaction. The externalities may, for example, consist of air pollution relating to emissions. In order to make the electricity market operate in a socio-economically optimal way, the cost of the air-pollutions must be transferred or internalized back to source of origin, namely the non-renewable energy production. Internalization is favourably made by applying an environmental tax on the polluter. The difficulty in applying an environmental tax lies in estimating the actual social cost. If an incorrect tax rate is applied, the environmental tax has failed in order to internalize negative externalities. To support another way of producing electricity in the same market can be motivated by the positive long-term dynamic effects. In relation to this, the electricity market gradually tends to abandon the ways of production that generates negative externalities.

According to a national framework agreement formulated in 2016, the total energy production in Sweden shall be based on renewable energy sources in 2040. Therefore, the comparative analysis between the certificate- and the auction system will be based on each systems ability to create incentives to produce a larger amount of renewable energy and to develop more efficient technologies. After analysing the effects arising from the application of both systems, the German auction system enables a more stable and predefined subsidy. Hence, the German auction system is more favourable to achieve the objectives to a greater extent than the Swedish green certificate system. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Åberg, Philip LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The renewable future
course
JURM02 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Rättsekonomi, law and economics
language
Swedish
id
8909993
date added to LUP
2017-06-19 13:41:54
date last changed
2017-06-19 13:41:54
@misc{8909993,
  abstract     = {In order to achieve the national climate and environmental objectives, the renewable energy production in Sweden must increase within the next few decades. The Swedish green certificate system (Sw: elcertifikatsystemet) is a market-based financial support system aimed at creating incentives for increased renewable energy production. The purpose of this thesis is to present an overview of the electricity certificate system, which is regulated in the Green Certificate Act 2011 (Sw: elcertifikatlagen). Furthermore, the purpose is to describe the reasons behind a support system or subsidy on today's electricity market, from an environmental economic perspective. The green certificate system is also analysed and compared next to an alternative support system, which was recently introduced in Germany, namely an auction system on renewable energy. The purpose of the comparison is to analyse which system is most appropriately designed to achieve the national climate objectives. In order to answer the issues set out in this thesis, a legal as well as an economic approach is used. 

A green certificate is awarded to certain electricity producers for every megawatt hour of produced renewable electricity. The financial support, in addition to the electricity sold, arises from the sale of the certificates to other market participants who are required to purchase the certificates. The amount of certificates that must be purchased on the market is determined by a so-called quota obligation (Sw: kvotplikt). Hereby, the quota obligation controls the demand for green certificates on the electricity market. So far, the system has increased the total volume of produced renewable electricity in Sweden and at the same time, the electricity price has remained low. On the other hand, the current design of the green certificate system is likely to contribute to fluctuating prices on the certificates, resulting in a lower subsidy to electricity producers. If the electricity producer’s profit decreases, the incentives of making technology developments will most likely also decrease. 

According to environmental economic theory, so-called negative externalities arise from non-renewable electricity production. A negative externality is a cost that is suffered by a third party as a result of an economic transaction. The externalities may, for example, consist of air pollution relating to emissions. In order to make the electricity market operate in a socio-economically optimal way, the cost of the air-pollutions must be transferred or internalized back to source of origin, namely the non-renewable energy production. Internalization is favourably made by applying an environmental tax on the polluter. The difficulty in applying an environmental tax lies in estimating the actual social cost. If an incorrect tax rate is applied, the environmental tax has failed in order to internalize negative externalities. To support another way of producing electricity in the same market can be motivated by the positive long-term dynamic effects. In relation to this, the electricity market gradually tends to abandon the ways of production that generates negative externalities.

According to a national framework agreement formulated in 2016, the total energy production in Sweden shall be based on renewable energy sources in 2040. Therefore, the comparative analysis between the certificate- and the auction system will be based on each systems ability to create incentives to produce a larger amount of renewable energy and to develop more efficient technologies. After analysing the effects arising from the application of both systems, the German auction system enables a more stable and predefined subsidy. Hence, the German auction system is more favourable to achieve the objectives to a greater extent than the Swedish green certificate system.},
  author       = {Åberg, Philip},
  keyword      = {Rättsekonomi,law and economics},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Den förnybara framtiden - en rättsekonomisk analys av det svenska elcertifikatsystemet},
  year         = {2017},
}