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The Sky is the Limit - En studie av vertikal förtätning och dess projektpåverkande faktorer

Malmberg, Johanna LU and Lindén, Jenny LU (2017) VFT920 20171
Real Estate Science
Abstract (Swedish)
Sverige präglas idag av en stark urbaniseringstrend, där inflyttning främst sker till våra tre storstadsregioner. Ett problem som försvårar urbaniseringen är att utbudet av bostäder inte möter den stora efterfrågan som uppstått. Byggbar mark i centrala lägen betraktas dessutom ofta som fullt ianspråktagen. På så vis har en diskussion om möjligheter att effektivisera markanvändningen uppstått. Detta skapar incitament att hitta nya strategier som möjliggör innovativa bostadslösningar.

Förtätning är ett aktuellt tillvägagångssätt inom stadsplanering som skapar en blandad stad med möjligheter till lokalt stadsliv. Det är en strategi som många anser vara långsiktigt hållbar då värdefull natur- och jordbruksmark bevaras. Vidare utnyttjas... (More)
Sverige präglas idag av en stark urbaniseringstrend, där inflyttning främst sker till våra tre storstadsregioner. Ett problem som försvårar urbaniseringen är att utbudet av bostäder inte möter den stora efterfrågan som uppstått. Byggbar mark i centrala lägen betraktas dessutom ofta som fullt ianspråktagen. På så vis har en diskussion om möjligheter att effektivisera markanvändningen uppstått. Detta skapar incitament att hitta nya strategier som möjliggör innovativa bostadslösningar.

Förtätning är ett aktuellt tillvägagångssätt inom stadsplanering som skapar en blandad stad med möjligheter till lokalt stadsliv. Det är en strategi som många anser vara långsiktigt hållbar då värdefull natur- och jordbruksmark bevaras. Vidare utnyttjas befintlig infrastruktur och service mer effektivt och nya mötesplatser skapas i staden. Vertikal förtätning är en strategi som innebär att exploateringstalet ökar utan att ny mark ianspråktas. I praktiken betyder detta att befintliga huskroppar förändras för att möjliggöra en mer effektiv användning. Examensarbetet avgränsas till att omfatta vertikal förtätning för bostadsändamål och våningspåbyggnader ovan jord. Detta tillvägagångssätt innebär att befintliga byggnader tillförs bostäder på taket.

Syftet med detta examensarbete är att utreda vilka faktorer som påverkar realiserandet av ett vertikalt förtätningsprojekt, samt att belysa vilka möjligheter som finns i Sverige idag. För att uppnå syftet undersöks juridiska, ekonomiska och tekniska faktorer, både genom en teoretisk och en empirisk studie. Den teoretiska studien resulterade i identifiering av ett antal faktorer som på ett eller annat sätt påverkar förverkligandet. Den empiriska studien har bestått av tio fallstudier av färdigställda vertikala förtätningsprojekt runt om i Sverige. Med hjälp av dessa projekt kunde tre framgångsfaktorer bekräftas som särskilt viktiga vid ett genomförande. Dessa är betongstomme och platt tak i den befintliga byggnaden, samt att projektet genomförs i ett attraktivt bostadsläge. Byggnadsåret kan ge en indikation på vilka byggnader som särskilt lämpar sig för påbyggnad, då flerbostadshus från slutet av 1950- till slutet av 1970-talet karaktäriseras av just denna konstruktion. För att tillföra en politikers perspektiv till studien har även en intervju med kommunfullmäktige-ledamot i Solna stad genomförts. Solna, med sina unika förutsättningar och drivkraft att skapa fler bostäder är en förebild inom området.

Utifrån studierna har författarna även identifierat fyra faktorer som på egen hand kan fälla ett projekt. Den första faktorn avser kommunens inställning, vilken måste vara positiv då kommunen har planmonopol och kan välja vad de vill detaljplanelägga för. Den andra faktorn berör miljöhänsyn, vilken kan ge upphov till en intressekonflikt mellan exploatörens och statens intressen. Länsstyrelsen har mandat att motsätta sig projektet för att försvara statens intressen om restriktioner inte följs. Grannar och andra berörda kan fälla ett projekt genom sin överklaganderätt av detaljplaner och lov. De kan även, genom att skapa opinion mot projektet, avskräcka exploatörer att gå vidare med en projektidé. Slutligen är lägesfaktorn avgörande för ett förverkligande. Att bygga i ett ogynnsamt läge kan leda till ett misslyckat projekt. Läget korrelerar med betalningsvilja, vilken i högst i städer och centrala lägen.

Olika typer av restriktioner och invändningar uppkommer ofta i samband med en planprocess. Restriktionerna kan exempelvis avse miljöaspekter angivna i kommunens olika plandokument och invändningarna kan komma från grannar och andra berörda. Ytterligare en slutsats i detta examensarbete är att de kommuner som studerats inte har ett tillräckligt stort incitament att genomföra vertikala förtätningar och orkar därför inte stå emot dessa motsättningar. I dessa fall bortprioriteras denna typ av förtätning. Således ligger svårigheten i genomförandet av dessa projekt inte i ekonomiska- eller tekniska lösningar, utan snarare i att lokalisera en byggrätt som är i linje med kommunernas intressen och inte motsätter sig restriktioner och invändningar. (Less)
Abstract
Today, Sweden is characterized by a strong urbanisation trend, where occupation mainly takes place in our three metropolitan regions, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. A problem that complicates the urbanisation is the fact that supply does not meet the demand of housing, which has arisen in these areas. In addition, buildable land in central areas is often considered to be fully claimed. Thus, a discussion about opportunities for streamline land use has emerged. This generates incentive to find new strategies that enable innovative housing solutions.

Densification is an up-to-date approach in urban planning that creates a diverse city with opportunities for local city life. This strategy is, by many, considered to be sustainable in the... (More)
Today, Sweden is characterized by a strong urbanisation trend, where occupation mainly takes place in our three metropolitan regions, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. A problem that complicates the urbanisation is the fact that supply does not meet the demand of housing, which has arisen in these areas. In addition, buildable land in central areas is often considered to be fully claimed. Thus, a discussion about opportunities for streamline land use has emerged. This generates incentive to find new strategies that enable innovative housing solutions.

Densification is an up-to-date approach in urban planning that creates a diverse city with opportunities for local city life. This strategy is, by many, considered to be sustainable in the long term since valuable nature and agriculture land is preserved. Furthermore, existing infrastructure and service are more efficiently utilized and new meeting places are created in the city. Vertical densification is a strategy that enables the exploitation rate to increase without new land being claimed. Practically, this means that existing constructions are altered to enable a more efficient land use. This thesis is delimited to include vertical densification for residential purposes where existing buildings are being supplied more housing on the roof.

The purpose of this master’s thesis is to investigate the factors that influence the realisation of a vertical densification project, as well as highlighting what opportunities exist in Sweden today. In order to achieve the purpose, legal, economic and technical factors are investigated, using a theoretical and an empirical study. The theoretical study resulted in the identification of a number of factors that in one way or another affect the realisation. The empirical study has consisted of ten case studies of completed vertical densification projects around Sweden. Using these projects, three success factors could be confirmed as particularly important in implementing vertical densification projects. The success factors are a concrete framework and a flat roof in the existing building’s construction, and that the project is realised in an attractive residential location. The construction year can provide an indication of which buildings are particularly suitable for vertical densification, as multi-family houses from the late 1950s to the late 1970s are characterized by this construction. In order to contribute a politician’s perspective to this thesis, an interview has been conducted with the city council member in Solna City. Solna, with its unique conditions and the incentive to create more housing, is a role model in the area.

Based on the case studies, the authors have also identified four factors that can overthrow a project. The first factor concerns the municipalities’ attitude, which must be positive, since the municipalities in Sweden have an urban planning monopoly. The second factor concerns environmental considerations, which could give rise to a conflict of interests between the exploiters and the state’s interests. The County Administrative Board has the mandate to oppose the project to defend the interests of the state, if restrictions are not followed. Neighbours and others concerned may overthrow a project since they have a right to appeal development plans and permits. They can also, by creating opinions against the project, deter exploiters from proceeding with a project idea. Finally, the location factor is crucial for a realisation. Building in an unfavourable location can lead to a failed project. The situation correlates with willingness to pay, which is highest in cities and central areas.

Different types of restrictions and objections often arise in connection to a planning process. Restrictions may, for example, refer to environmental aspects stated in the municipality’s various planning documents, and the objections may come from neighbours and others concerned. A further conclusion in this thesis is that the investigated municipalities do not have a sufficiently large incentive to go through with vertical densification projects, and can therefore not resist these disagreements. In these municipalities, this type of densification is not prioritized. Thus, the difficulty in implementing vertical densification projects is not in financial or technical solutions, but in locating a construction right that is in line with the interests of the municipalities and does not oppose restrictions and objections. (Less)
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author
Malmberg, Johanna LU and Lindén, Jenny LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Sky is the Limit - A study of vertical densification and its project-influencing factors
course
VFT920 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
vertikal förtätning, förtätning, påbyggnad, bostadsutveckling
other publication id
ISRN/LUTVDG/TVLM/17/5388 SE
language
Swedish
id
8912018
date added to LUP
2017-06-15 12:01:29
date last changed
2017-06-15 12:01:29
@misc{8912018,
  abstract     = {Today, Sweden is characterized by a strong urbanisation trend, where occupation mainly takes place in our three metropolitan regions, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. A problem that complicates the urbanisation is the fact that supply does not meet the demand of housing, which has arisen in these areas. In addition, buildable land in central areas is often considered to be fully claimed. Thus, a discussion about opportunities for streamline land use has emerged. This generates incentive to find new strategies that enable innovative housing solutions.

Densification is an up-to-date approach in urban planning that creates a diverse city with opportunities for local city life. This strategy is, by many, considered to be sustainable in the long term since valuable nature and agriculture land is preserved. Furthermore, existing infrastructure and service are more efficiently utilized and new meeting places are created in the city. Vertical densification is a strategy that enables the exploitation rate to increase without new land being claimed. Practically, this means that existing constructions are altered to enable a more efficient land use. This thesis is delimited to include vertical densification for residential purposes where existing buildings are being supplied more housing on the roof.

The purpose of this master’s thesis is to investigate the factors that influence the realisation of a vertical densification project, as well as highlighting what opportunities exist in Sweden today. In order to achieve the purpose, legal, economic and technical factors are investigated, using a theoretical and an empirical study. The theoretical study resulted in the identification of a number of factors that in one way or another affect the realisation. The empirical study has consisted of ten case studies of completed vertical densification projects around Sweden. Using these projects, three success factors could be confirmed as particularly important in implementing vertical densification projects. The success factors are a concrete framework and a flat roof in the existing building’s construction, and that the project is realised in an attractive residential location. The construction year can provide an indication of which buildings are particularly suitable for vertical densification, as multi-family houses from the late 1950s to the late 1970s are characterized by this construction. In order to contribute a politician’s perspective to this thesis, an interview has been conducted with the city council member in Solna City. Solna, with its unique conditions and the incentive to create more housing, is a role model in the area. 

Based on the case studies, the authors have also identified four factors that can overthrow a project. The first factor concerns the municipalities’ attitude, which must be positive, since the municipalities in Sweden have an urban planning monopoly. The second factor concerns environmental considerations, which could give rise to a conflict of interests between the exploiters and the state’s interests. The County Administrative Board has the mandate to oppose the project to defend the interests of the state, if restrictions are not followed. Neighbours and others concerned may overthrow a project since they have a right to appeal development plans and permits. They can also, by creating opinions against the project, deter exploiters from proceeding with a project idea. Finally, the location factor is crucial for a realisation. Building in an unfavourable location can lead to a failed project. The situation correlates with willingness to pay, which is highest in cities and central areas.

Different types of restrictions and objections often arise in connection to a planning process. Restrictions may, for example, refer to environmental aspects stated in the municipality’s various planning documents, and the objections may come from neighbours and others concerned. A further conclusion in this thesis is that the investigated municipalities do not have a sufficiently large incentive to go through with vertical densification projects, and can therefore not resist these disagreements. In these municipalities, this type of densification is not prioritized. Thus, the difficulty in implementing vertical densification projects is not in financial or technical solutions, but in locating a construction right that is in line with the interests of the municipalities and does not oppose restrictions and objections.},
  author       = {Malmberg, Johanna and Lindén, Jenny},
  keyword      = {vertikal förtätning,förtätning,påbyggnad,bostadsutveckling},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {The Sky is the Limit - En studie av vertikal förtätning och dess projektpåverkande faktorer},
  year         = {2017},
}