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En alternativ flyktingstatusbedömning - En undersökning av flyktingstatusbedömningar i Sverige mot bakgrund av UNHCR:s riktlinjer

Berggren, Lotten LU (2017) JURM02 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I och med införandet av den tillfälliga lagen har en asylsökandes skyddsstatus fått ökad betydelse. Exempelvis har flyktingar rätt till familjeåterförening medan alternativt skyddsbehövande som regel inte har det. Sverige har bland annat kritiserats av UNHCR för att få personer, vid en internationell jämförelse, beviljas flyktingstatus i landet.

Detta arbete undersöker domar från migrationsdomstolen och förevarande beslut från Migrationsverket då syriska asylsökande överklagat sin status som alternativt skyddsbehövande och beviljats flyktingstatus av migrationsdomstolen. Dessa domar och beslut jämförs med relevanta riktlinjer från UNHCR för att på så sätt finna tendenser som kan visa på varför Sverige beviljar relativt få personer... (More)
I och med införandet av den tillfälliga lagen har en asylsökandes skyddsstatus fått ökad betydelse. Exempelvis har flyktingar rätt till familjeåterförening medan alternativt skyddsbehövande som regel inte har det. Sverige har bland annat kritiserats av UNHCR för att få personer, vid en internationell jämförelse, beviljas flyktingstatus i landet.

Detta arbete undersöker domar från migrationsdomstolen och förevarande beslut från Migrationsverket då syriska asylsökande överklagat sin status som alternativt skyddsbehövande och beviljats flyktingstatus av migrationsdomstolen. Dessa domar och beslut jämförs med relevanta riktlinjer från UNHCR för att på så sätt finna tendenser som kan visa på varför Sverige beviljar relativt få personer flyktingstatus.

Jämförelsen visar att Sverige ofta fokuserar på individuella omständigheter i större utsträckning vid flyktingstatusbedömningen än vad som görs i UNHCR:s riktlinjer. Det ställs ett krav på att den sökande ska kunna visa på en individuell hotbild vilket innebär att personen tidigare ska ha varit individuellt utpekad eller förföljd. Vad gäller kopplingen mellan förföljelsen och en flyktinggrund bortses det ofta från generella omständigheter som drabbar stora grupper av människor. UNHCR:s riktlinjer poängterar dock att det inte krävs att en person ska vara individuellt utpekad för att bedömas som flykting. Vidare kan enligt UNHCR den kausala länken mellan förföljelsen och flyktinggrunden vara uppfylld genom attentat som drabbar större grupper, vilket ofta är fallet då det råder en väpnad konflikt i landet.

Undersökningen visar även att migrationsdomstolarna och Migrationsverket tenderar att bortse från flera potentiella flyktinggrunder. Exempelvis redogörs det inte för riskerna som kan följa av att den sökande är kvinna trots att UNHCR har påpekat att kvinnor från Syrien är en särskilt utsatt grupp som generellt sett är att anse som flyktingar.

Genomgången av besluten och domarna visar på att Sverige på flera sätt ställer högre krav på den sökande än vad UNHCR:s riktlinjer gör för att en person ska beviljas flyktingstatus. Att Sveriges bedömningar och riktlinjer inte står i överensstämmelse med UNHCR:s riktlinjer kan således vara en bidragande faktor till att Sverige vid en internationell jämförelse beviljar få personer flyktingstatus. (Less)
Abstract
Asylum seekers’ protection status has become more important since the implementation of the temporary migration law in Sweden, inter alia as people with refugee status have a right to family reunification while people with subsidiary protection do not. Sweden has several times been criticised, including by the UNHCR, as few people, in an international comparison, are granted refugee status in the country.

This essay examines rulings from the Swedish Migration Courts and the Swedish Migration Agency in which asylum seekers from Syria have appealed their subsidiary protection status and are granted refugee status in the Migration Court. These judgments and decisions are compared with relevant guidelines from the UNHCR in order to identify... (More)
Asylum seekers’ protection status has become more important since the implementation of the temporary migration law in Sweden, inter alia as people with refugee status have a right to family reunification while people with subsidiary protection do not. Sweden has several times been criticised, including by the UNHCR, as few people, in an international comparison, are granted refugee status in the country.

This essay examines rulings from the Swedish Migration Courts and the Swedish Migration Agency in which asylum seekers from Syria have appealed their subsidiary protection status and are granted refugee status in the Migration Court. These judgments and decisions are compared with relevant guidelines from the UNHCR in order to identify potential trends that can show why Sweden grants refugee status to relatively few asylum seekers.

The comparison shows that Sweden often focuses on individual circumstances to a greater extent than UNHCR’s guidelines when assessing refugee status. In the rulings, there is often a requirement that the applicant should be able to demonstrate that he or she is individually threatened, in the sense that the person has previously been individually targeted or persecuted. Regarding the connection between persecution and the refugee ground, general circumstances that affect large groups of people are often overlooked. The UNHCR’s guidelines, however, point out that it is not necessary for a person to be individually singled out or targeted for persecution to be considered a refugee. Furthermore, according to the guidelines, the causal link between persecution and refugee grounds can be established through violence that affects larger groups, which is often the case in armed conflicts.

The examination also shows that the Migration Courts and the Migration Agency tend to overlook several potential refugee grounds. For example, the fact that the applicant is a woman is often disregarded, although UNHCR has found that women from Syria are a particularly vulnerable group that is generally considered to be refugees.

The study of the decisions and the judgments shows that Sweden imposes more requirements to assess the applicant as a refugee than the UNHCR’s guidelines. The fact that Sweden's assessments and guidelines are not in accordance with UNHCR’s guidelines can thus be a contributing factor to why Sweden grants relatively few people refugee status. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Berggren, Lotten LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
An alternative refugee status assessment - An investigation of refugee status assessments in Sweden in light of UNHCR's guidelines
course
JURM02 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
folkrätt, migrationsrätt, asylrätt, statusförklaring, flyktingstatus
language
Swedish
id
8922304
date added to LUP
2017-09-07 10:45:25
date last changed
2017-09-07 10:45:25
@misc{8922304,
  abstract     = {Asylum seekers’ protection status has become more important since the implementation of the temporary migration law in Sweden, inter alia as people with refugee status have a right to family reunification while people with subsidiary protection do not. Sweden has several times been criticised, including by the UNHCR, as few people, in an international comparison, are granted refugee status in the country.

This essay examines rulings from the Swedish Migration Courts and the Swedish Migration Agency in which asylum seekers from Syria have appealed their subsidiary protection status and are granted refugee status in the Migration Court. These judgments and decisions are compared with relevant guidelines from the UNHCR in order to identify potential trends that can show why Sweden grants refugee status to relatively few asylum seekers.

The comparison shows that Sweden often focuses on individual circumstances to a greater extent than UNHCR’s guidelines when assessing refugee status. In the rulings, there is often a requirement that the applicant should be able to demonstrate that he or she is individually threatened, in the sense that the person has previously been individually targeted or persecuted. Regarding the connection between persecution and the refugee ground, general circumstances that affect large groups of people are often overlooked. The UNHCR’s guidelines, however, point out that it is not necessary for a person to be individually singled out or targeted for persecution to be considered a refugee. Furthermore, according to the guidelines, the causal link between persecution and refugee grounds can be established through violence that affects larger groups, which is often the case in armed conflicts.

The examination also shows that the Migration Courts and the Migration Agency tend to overlook several potential refugee grounds. For example, the fact that the applicant is a woman is often disregarded, although UNHCR has found that women from Syria are a particularly vulnerable group that is generally considered to be refugees.

The study of the decisions and the judgments shows that Sweden imposes more requirements to assess the applicant as a refugee than the UNHCR’s guidelines. The fact that Sweden's assessments and guidelines are not in accordance with UNHCR’s guidelines can thus be a contributing factor to why Sweden grants relatively few people refugee status.},
  author       = {Berggren, Lotten},
  keyword      = {folkrätt,migrationsrätt,asylrätt,statusförklaring,flyktingstatus},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {En alternativ flyktingstatusbedömning - En undersökning av flyktingstatusbedömningar i Sverige mot bakgrund av UNHCR:s riktlinjer},
  year         = {2017},
}