Advanced

Hämndporr och integritet - om straffansvar ur ett brottsofferperspektiv

Wohlin, Carl LU (2017) JURM02 20172
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Det finns i svensk rätt inget samordnat skydd för den personliga integriteten, utan istället är det olika bestämmelser i brottsbalken som aktualiseras när det skett kränkningar av den personliga integriteten privatpersoner emellan. Ett exempel på en sådan kränkning är hämndporr, från engelskans ”revenge porn”, som innebär ett spridande av bild eller film med sexuellt innehåll på annan person utan dennes samtycke.

Det kan konstateras att efter NJA 1992 s. 594 har förtalsbrottet varit mest frekvent förekommande vid lagföringen av hämndporr. Eftersom ofredandebrottet ställer krav på att fridskränkningen ska vara kännbar, vilket uttalades i bland annat NJA 2008 s. 946, är det sällan tillämpbart vid fall av hämndporr. Hämndporr tycks inte... (More)
Det finns i svensk rätt inget samordnat skydd för den personliga integriteten, utan istället är det olika bestämmelser i brottsbalken som aktualiseras när det skett kränkningar av den personliga integriteten privatpersoner emellan. Ett exempel på en sådan kränkning är hämndporr, från engelskans ”revenge porn”, som innebär ett spridande av bild eller film med sexuellt innehåll på annan person utan dennes samtycke.

Det kan konstateras att efter NJA 1992 s. 594 har förtalsbrottet varit mest frekvent förekommande vid lagföringen av hämndporr. Eftersom ofredandebrottet ställer krav på att fridskränkningen ska vara kännbar, vilket uttalades i bland annat NJA 2008 s. 946, är det sällan tillämpbart vid fall av hämndporr. Hämndporr tycks inte heller kunna falla in under sexuellt ofredande, efter Högsta domstolens dom NJA 2017 s. 393. Detta eftersom det i fallet uttalades att om den som utsätts inte uppfattat angreppet ska det främst röra sig om kroppslig beröring eller ett handlande som är att jämställa med sådan beröring.

Enligt gällande rättsläge är det därmed främst förtalsbrottet som är aktuellt vid fall av hämndporr. Detta är på flera sätt problematiskt, bland annat eftersom det är ett målsägandebrott vilket sannolikt skapar en hög tröskel för den utsatte som vill tillvarata sin rätt. Ett nytt brott, olaga integritetsintrång, ska införas den 1 januari 2018 som ett komplement till den nuvarande ordningen. Brottet är tänkt att täcka in samtliga fall av hämndporr och även andra gärningar som kan innebära ett angrepp på den personliga integriteten. Genom paragrafens första punkt kriminaliseras spridande av bild på eller annan uppgift om någons sexualliv, om spridningen varit ägnad att medföra allvarlig skada för den bilden eller uppgiften rör.

Olaga integritetsintrång tycks komma att få en tydlig överlappning med förtalsbrottet, vilket ter sig något märkligt eftersom de båda brotten är tänkta att ha olika skyddsintressen. Något som också kan tyckas egendomligt är att paragrafens första punkt, som alltså riktar sig mot bland annat hämndporr, inte särregleras i 6 kap bland sexualbrotten. Detta eftersom hämndporr kan påstås innebära såväl ett intrång i den kroppsliga självbestämmanderätten som ett angrepp på den sexuella integriteten och därmed uppvisar flera likheter med sexualbrotten. Ur ett brottsofferperspektiv borde hämndporr således särregleras som ett sådant.

Trots detta bör införandet ses som en från lagstiftaren välkommen markering mot hämndporr och i och med dess strängare straffskala, kan det nya brottet åtminstone teoretiskt sett skapa ett starkare skydd för den personliga integriteten. (Less)
Abstract
The Swedish law lacks a general law that protects personal integrity. Instead there are provisions in brottsbalken, the Swedish Penal Code, that are applicable when there have been violations of the personal integrity between individuals. An example of such a violation is revenge porn, the non-consensual distribution of photos or videos of sexual nature.

After the Swedish Supreme Court’s ruling, NJA 1992, page 594, it can be noted that defamation is the most common crime classification in revenge porn cases. The crime molestation is not applicable in most revenge porn cases, since it requires that the victim perceived the violation of integrity when the act against him or her was committed. This in accordance with the Supreme Court’s... (More)
The Swedish law lacks a general law that protects personal integrity. Instead there are provisions in brottsbalken, the Swedish Penal Code, that are applicable when there have been violations of the personal integrity between individuals. An example of such a violation is revenge porn, the non-consensual distribution of photos or videos of sexual nature.

After the Swedish Supreme Court’s ruling, NJA 1992, page 594, it can be noted that defamation is the most common crime classification in revenge porn cases. The crime molestation is not applicable in most revenge porn cases, since it requires that the victim perceived the violation of integrity when the act against him or her was committed. This in accordance with the Supreme Court’s ruling NJA 2008, page 946. The crime sexual molestation is probably not either applicable in cases of revenge porn after the Supreme Court’s ruling NJA 2017, page 393. The Supreme Court stated in this case concerning sexual molestation that it is not required that the victim perceived the violation of integrity when the act against him or her was committed. Although, if the victim did not perceive the violation of integrity, the act which violated the integrity should primarily involve touching the body or an act that is comparable to touching the body.

According to the current legal situation, defamation is the most applicable crime classification in cases of revenge porn. This is in many ways problematic, since defamation, among other things, requires the victim to press charges for the prosecutor being able to bring the case to court. Which in turn makes it harder for victims seeking justice. A new crime denoted unlawful intrusion of integrity is to be introduced January 1, 2018, as a complementary crime classification. The crime is intended to cover all cases of revenge porn and some other acts that might violate the personal integrity. Through the first paragraph of the article the distribution of a photo of or some other information about a person’s sexual life is criminalized if the distribution was intended to cause serious damage to the person the photo or information concerns.

Unlawful intrusion of integrity and defamation will probably overlap in many cases, which is somewhat strange since the two crimes are intended to protect different interests. Another surprising aspect is that the first paragraph of the article, which is primarily aimed at revenge porn, is not placed in chapter 6 of the Penal Code among the sex crimes. This is due to the fact that revenge porn can be seen as both an intrusion in one’s right to self-determination over his or her body as well as an attack on the sexual integrity, and hence shows several similarities to the sex crimes. From a victim’s perspective revenge porn should therefore be placed among the sex crimes.

In spite of this, the introduction of unlawful intrusion of integrity should be regarded as a change in the right direction. Since the possible sentencing for unlawful intrusion of integrity is harsher than the one for defamation, it can at least theoretically create a stronger protection for the personal integrity. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Wohlin, Carl LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Revenge Porn and Integrity - Criminal Responsibility from a Victim’s Perspective
course
JURM02 20172
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, hämndporr, olaga integritetsintrång, sexuell integritet, personlig integritet, förtal, ofredande, sexuellt ofredande, NJA 1992 s. 594, NJA 2008 s. 946, NJA 2017 s. 393
language
Swedish
id
8930314
date added to LUP
2018-02-01 13:56:49
date last changed
2018-02-01 13:56:49
@misc{8930314,
  abstract     = {The Swedish law lacks a general law that protects personal integrity. Instead there are provisions in brottsbalken, the Swedish Penal Code, that are applicable when there have been violations of the personal integrity between individuals. An example of such a violation is revenge porn, the non-consensual distribution of photos or videos of sexual nature. 

After the Swedish Supreme Court’s ruling, NJA 1992, page 594, it can be noted that defamation is the most common crime classification in revenge porn cases. The crime molestation is not applicable in most revenge porn cases, since it requires that the victim perceived the violation of integrity when the act against him or her was committed. This in accordance with the Supreme Court’s ruling NJA 2008, page 946. The crime sexual molestation is probably not either applicable in cases of revenge porn after the Supreme Court’s ruling NJA 2017, page 393. The Supreme Court stated in this case concerning sexual molestation that it is not required that the victim perceived the violation of integrity when the act against him or her was committed. Although, if the victim did not perceive the violation of integrity, the act which violated the integrity should primarily involve touching the body or an act that is comparable to touching the body.

According to the current legal situation, defamation is the most applicable crime classification in cases of revenge porn. This is in many ways problematic, since defamation, among other things, requires the victim to press charges for the prosecutor being able to bring the case to court. Which in turn makes it harder for victims seeking justice. A new crime denoted unlawful intrusion of integrity is to be introduced January 1, 2018, as a complementary crime classification. The crime is intended to cover all cases of revenge porn and some other acts that might violate the personal integrity. Through the first paragraph of the article the distribution of a photo of or some other information about a person’s sexual life is criminalized if the distribution was intended to cause serious damage to the person the photo or information concerns.

Unlawful intrusion of integrity and defamation will probably overlap in many cases, which is somewhat strange since the two crimes are intended to protect different interests. Another surprising aspect is that the first paragraph of the article, which is primarily aimed at revenge porn, is not placed in chapter 6 of the Penal Code among the sex crimes. This is due to the fact that revenge porn can be seen as both an intrusion in one’s right to self-determination over his or her body as well as an attack on the sexual integrity, and hence shows several similarities to the sex crimes. From a victim’s perspective revenge porn should therefore be placed among the sex crimes.

In spite of this, the introduction of unlawful intrusion of integrity should be regarded as a change in the right direction. Since the possible sentencing for unlawful intrusion of integrity is harsher than the one for defamation, it can at least theoretically create a stronger protection for the personal integrity.},
  author       = {Wohlin, Carl},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,hämndporr,olaga integritetsintrång,sexuell integritet,personlig integritet,förtal,ofredande,sexuellt ofredande,NJA 1992 s. 594,NJA 2008 s. 946,NJA 2017 s. 393},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Hämndporr och integritet - om straffansvar ur ett brottsofferperspektiv},
  year         = {2017},
}