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Folkdomstolen på sociala medier - Rättsliga konsekvenser av utpekanden av sexualbrottslingar

Ljunggren, Ingrid LU (2018) JURM02 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Under hösten 2017 spreds hashtaggen #metoo som en lavin på sociala medier. Upprinnelsen till hashtaggen var ett utpekande av en filmproducent som avslöjades ha utsatt flertalet kvinnor inom den amerikanska filmbranschen för sexuella övergrepp. I samband med avslöjandet uppmanade en amerikansk skådespelerska sina kvinnliga kollegor att offentliggöra sina erfarenheter av sexuella övergrepp under hashtaggen me too. Hashtaggen användes för första gången redan år 2006, då för att uppmärksamma sexuellt våld mot rasifierade svarta kvinnor. Hastaggen fick dock sitt stora genombrott under slutet av 2017.

Me too-rörelsen syftar till att uppmärksamma sexuellt våld mot kvinnor. Hashtaggen tillåter kvinnor att tala ut och frigöra sig från skam och... (More)
Under hösten 2017 spreds hashtaggen #metoo som en lavin på sociala medier. Upprinnelsen till hashtaggen var ett utpekande av en filmproducent som avslöjades ha utsatt flertalet kvinnor inom den amerikanska filmbranschen för sexuella övergrepp. I samband med avslöjandet uppmanade en amerikansk skådespelerska sina kvinnliga kollegor att offentliggöra sina erfarenheter av sexuella övergrepp under hashtaggen me too. Hashtaggen användes för första gången redan år 2006, då för att uppmärksamma sexuellt våld mot rasifierade svarta kvinnor. Hastaggen fick dock sitt stora genombrott under slutet av 2017.

Me too-rörelsen syftar till att uppmärksamma sexuellt våld mot kvinnor. Hashtaggen tillåter kvinnor att tala ut och frigöra sig från skam och skuld till följd av ett sexuellt övergrepp. I Sverige blev me too-rörelsen startskottet för ett omfattande upprop, både bland enskilda och hela branscher. Syftet med en publicering under #metoo var att dela med sig av sina erfarenheter och på så sätt visa sitt stöd för rörelsen. Vissa personer publicerade även berättelser där de namngav sina förövare.

Att sprida direkta namngivanden av förövare eller antydningar om förövarens identitet kan utgöra förtal enligt svensk lag. Utpekanden av detta slag blev något av en trend under slutet av 2017. Att frigörande utpekanden av sina förövare kan leda till straffansvar var ett bakslag för me too-rörelsen. Den första domen avseende ett utpekande under #metoo kom i början av 2018. En kvinna dömdes för förtal efter att ha namngivit sin förövare i ett facebookinlägg.

Internet innebär positiva förändringar för yttrandefriheten. Det är numera möjligt för vem som helst att publicera information om vad som helst. Informationen kan få oändlig spridning och mycket av informationen finns kvar på internet under en oöverskådlig tid.

Sverige är ett mycket digitaliserat land; nästan alla har tillgång till internet. Trots en utbredd internetanvändning finns det många missuppfattningar vad man får skriva på internet. Många ser internet som en ansvarsfri zon där vanliga uppförandekoder inte gäller. Källkritik tas inte lika seriöst på internet som i verkliga världen. Därutöver är internet en plats där alla kan hitta och omge sig av likasinnade. Sociala medier är därför ett effektivt verktyg för politisk och social mobilisering.

Frågan om sexualbrottslingars rätt till personlig integritet har blivit en del av samhällsdebatten det senaste året. Lagen är tydlig med att även sexualbrottslingar har rätt till skydd för kränkande uppgifter, även om uppgiften är sann. Det finns mycket som tyder på att samhällets syn på sexualbrottslingars rätt till personlig integritet inte stämmer överens med lagstiftarens. Balansen mellan yttrandefrihet och personlig integritet är inte orubblig. Skiftningar i samhället kan leda till att synen på utpekanden av sexualbrottslingar blir allt mer accepterad. Ett tecken på detta syns i den tidigare nämnda domen mot kvinnan som publicerade ett utpekande på Facebook. Kvinnan blev dömd för förtal, men tingsrätten bedömde att me too-rörelsen var en förmildrande omständighet och kvinnan fick betala det lägsta antalet dagsböter.

På grund av internet har virala kampanjer, såsom #metoo, kunnat spridas över hela världen. Men öppenhet skapar även sårbarhet, särskilt för den personliga integriteten. Utpekanden och namngivanden av icke dömda förövare under me too-röresen har blivit utsatt för kritik. Kritiker menade att sådana utpekanden skapar en folkdomstol på sociala medier, där ingen går säker.

En folkdomstol på sociala medier innebär att utpekanden och liknande beteenden leder till att personer blir dömda av samhället innan gärningen har genomgått en rättslig prövning. En dom från folkdomstolen kan få förödande konsekvenser för den som blir utpekad. Folkdomstolen tar nämligen inte hänsyn till rätten till en rättvis rättegång och det finns ingen möjlighet att överklaga. Folkdomstolen och utpekanden av icke dömda sexualbrottslingar på sociala medier strider även mot oskuldspresumtionen, som stadgar att var och en har rätt att betraktas som oskyldig till dess att hans eller hennes skuld lagligen fastställts. (Less)
Abstract
In the fall of 2017, the hashtag #metoo spread virally on social media. The hashtag started when a Hollywood film producer was accused of having exposed several women in the American film industry of sexual abuse. In connection with the allegations, an American actress encouraged her female colleagues to publish their experiences of sexual abuse under the hashtag of me too. The hashtag was first used during the year of 2006, then to pay attention to sexual violence against African-American women. The hashtag did not get as much impact then, as in 2017.

The Me too movement aims to prevent sexual violence against women. The hashtag allows women to finally speak freely about sexual abuse, without shame or guilt. In Sweden, the Me too... (More)
In the fall of 2017, the hashtag #metoo spread virally on social media. The hashtag started when a Hollywood film producer was accused of having exposed several women in the American film industry of sexual abuse. In connection with the allegations, an American actress encouraged her female colleagues to publish their experiences of sexual abuse under the hashtag of me too. The hashtag was first used during the year of 2006, then to pay attention to sexual violence against African-American women. The hashtag did not get as much impact then, as in 2017.

The Me too movement aims to prevent sexual violence against women. The hashtag allows women to finally speak freely about sexual abuse, without shame or guilt. In Sweden, the Me too movement became the starting point for an extensive campaign, both among individuals and entire industries. The purpose of a publication under #metoo is to share experiences and thus show support for the movement. Some people also published stories where they named their perpetrators in connection with the allegations.

Spreading names of perpetrators or indications of the perpetrator's identity may constitute an offense under Swedish law. Appearances of this kind became somewhat of a trend by the end of 2017. That publications of perpetrators identities can lead to criminal liability was a backlash for the Me too movement. The first Swedish judgment regarding an allegation under #metoo came in early 2018. A woman was found guilty for defamation after naming her offender in a Facebook post.

The Internet means new possibilities for exercising your right to freedom of speech. The Internet makes it possible for anyone to publish information about anything. The information can get infinite spread and much of the information remains on the Internet for an incalculable time.

Sweden is a highly digitalized country; almost everyone has access to the Internet. Despite a widespread use of internet, there are many misconceptions about what you can and cannot publish on the Internet. Many people regard the internet as a zone where common codes of conduct do not apply. Source criticism is not taken as seriously on the internet as in the real world. In addition, the internet is a place where everyone can find like-minded people. Social media is therefore an effective tool for political and social mobilization.

The issue of sexual offenders' right to privacy has become part of the public debate in the last year. The Swedish law is clear, even sexual offenders have a right to protection for defamation, even if the information is true. There is a lot of evidence that the society's view of sexual offenders' right to privacy does not match the legal view. The balance between freedom of expression and personal integrity is not absolute. Changes in society can lead to a growing acceptance of naming and publishing sexual offenders on social media. A sign of this is seen in the previously mentioned judgment against the woman who published a Facebook post, naming her perpetrator. The woman was sentenced for defamation, but the court judged that the Me too movement was considered to be a mitigating circumstance.

Because of the Internet, viral campaigns, like #metoo, have been able to spread virally around the world. But openness also creates vulnerability, especially for the protection of personal integrity. Allegations and the identification of non-convicted perpetrators under #metoo have been criticized. Critics mean that such allegations create a people’s court on social media, where nobody is safe from allegations.

A people’s court on social media means that allegations and similar behaviors lead to people being convicted by society, before the person has undergone a trial. A verdict from the people’s court on social media can have major negative consequences for the person being named. The people’s court does not take the right to a fair trial into account and there is no possibility of appeal. The people’s court and the allegations of non-convicted sexual offenders on social media also contravene the presumption of innocence which states that each person is considered innocent until proven guilty. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ljunggren, Ingrid LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The people's court on social media - Legal consequences of posting names of sexual offenders
course
JURM02 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, rättssociologi
language
Swedish
id
8940898
date added to LUP
2018-06-12 09:23:27
date last changed
2018-06-12 09:23:27
@misc{8940898,
  abstract     = {In the fall of 2017, the hashtag #metoo spread virally on social media. The hashtag started when a Hollywood film producer was accused of having exposed several women in the American film industry of sexual abuse. In connection with the allegations, an American actress encouraged her female colleagues to publish their experiences of sexual abuse under the hashtag of me too. The hashtag was first used during the year of 2006, then to pay attention to sexual violence against African-American women. The hashtag did not get as much impact then, as in 2017.

The Me too movement aims to prevent sexual violence against women. The hashtag allows women to finally speak freely about sexual abuse, without shame or guilt. In Sweden, the Me too movement became the starting point for an extensive campaign, both among individuals and entire industries. The purpose of a publication under #metoo is to share experiences and thus show support for the movement. Some people also published stories where they named their perpetrators in connection with the allegations.

Spreading names of perpetrators or indications of the perpetrator's identity may constitute an offense under Swedish law. Appearances of this kind became somewhat of a trend by the end of 2017. That publications of perpetrators identities can lead to criminal liability was a backlash for the Me too movement. The first Swedish judgment regarding an allegation under #metoo came in early 2018. A woman was found guilty for defamation after naming her offender in a Facebook post.

The Internet means new possibilities for exercising your right to freedom of speech. The Internet makes it possible for anyone to publish information about anything. The information can get infinite spread and much of the information remains on the Internet for an incalculable time. 

Sweden is a highly digitalized country; almost everyone has access to the Internet. Despite a widespread use of internet, there are many misconceptions about what you can and cannot publish on the Internet. Many people regard the internet as a zone where common codes of conduct do not apply. Source criticism is not taken as seriously on the internet as in the real world. In addition, the internet is a place where everyone can find like-minded people. Social media is therefore an effective tool for political and social mobilization.

The issue of sexual offenders' right to privacy has become part of the public debate in the last year. The Swedish law is clear, even sexual offenders have a right to protection for defamation, even if the information is true. There is a lot of evidence that the society's view of sexual offenders' right to privacy does not match the legal view. The balance between freedom of expression and personal integrity is not absolute. Changes in society can lead to a growing acceptance of naming and publishing sexual offenders on social media. A sign of this is seen in the previously mentioned judgment against the woman who published a Facebook post, naming her perpetrator. The woman was sentenced for defamation, but the court judged that the Me too movement was considered to be a mitigating circumstance. 

Because of the Internet, viral campaigns, like #metoo, have been able to spread virally around the world. But openness also creates vulnerability, especially for the protection of personal integrity. Allegations and the identification of non-convicted perpetrators under #metoo have been criticized. Critics mean that such allegations create a people’s court on social media, where nobody is safe from allegations.

A people’s court on social media means that allegations and similar behaviors lead to people being convicted by society, before the person has undergone a trial. A verdict from the people’s court on social media can have major negative consequences for the person being named. The people’s court does not take the right to a fair trial into account and there is no possibility of appeal. The people’s court and the allegations of non-convicted sexual offenders on social media also contravene the presumption of innocence which states that each person is considered innocent until proven guilty.},
  author       = {Ljunggren, Ingrid},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,rättssociologi},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Folkdomstolen på sociala medier - Rättsliga konsekvenser av utpekanden av sexualbrottslingar},
  year         = {2018},
}