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Frihet att välja - så länge du väljer rätt. En studie av religionsfriheten i 1809 års regeringsform

Bergström, Matilda LU (2018) LAGF03 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
1809 antogs en ny regeringsform i Sverige. En nyhet i denna var att den ålade kungen att skydda var och ens rätt till fri religionsutövning, vilket på ytan verkar innebära att religionsfrihet infördes. Samtidigt fanns det i kyrkolagen och missgärningsbalken regler som innebar att svenska medborgare var förbjudna att konvertera från den luthersk-evangeliska kristendomen. Det till synes paradoxala förhållande mellan grundlag och allmän lag är i fokus i uppsatsen, som även undersöker bakgrunden till 1809 års regeringsform.

Den svenska religionslagstiftningen hade länge präglats av strävanden efter enhet, och denna tanke fanns kvar 1809. Protokoll från riksdagsdebatten vid regeringsformens stiftande visar att lagstiftarens avsikt inte var... (More)
1809 antogs en ny regeringsform i Sverige. En nyhet i denna var att den ålade kungen att skydda var och ens rätt till fri religionsutövning, vilket på ytan verkar innebära att religionsfrihet infördes. Samtidigt fanns det i kyrkolagen och missgärningsbalken regler som innebar att svenska medborgare var förbjudna att konvertera från den luthersk-evangeliska kristendomen. Det till synes paradoxala förhållande mellan grundlag och allmän lag är i fokus i uppsatsen, som även undersöker bakgrunden till 1809 års regeringsform.

Den svenska religionslagstiftningen hade länge präglats av strävanden efter enhet, och denna tanke fanns kvar 1809. Protokoll från riksdagsdebatten vid regeringsformens stiftande visar att lagstiftarens avsikt inte var att införa en möjlighet att konvertera. Stadgandet om fri religionsutövning tolkades snarare som en frihet att välja precis hur man skulle utöva den luthersk-evangeliska kristendomen, och exempelvis själv avgöra om man ville ta nattvarden eller inte. Utgångspunkten var fortfarande att alla svenska medborgare skulle höra till samma kyrka. Synen på den aktuella paragrafen kom att förändras under 1800-talets gång, men eftersom svenska domstolar inte ansåg sig ha lagprövningsrätt förrän på 1900-talet innebar detta inte att den gamla tvångslagstiftningen upphörde att tillämpas.

Det finns olika uppfattningar om i vilken utsträckning upplysningen tog sig till Sverige, men den här uppsatsen kommer fram till att den i varje fall influerade regleringen av religion i 1809 års regeringsform. De drivande för att införa den visserligen begränsade religionsfriheten i grundlagen var neologerna, en grupp teologer som prioriterade individens egna upplevelser av religionen framför kyrkans traditionella dogmer, vilket kan kopplas till upplysningens förnuftstro och ifrågasättande av auktoriteter. (Less)
Abstract
Sweden adopted a new constitution in 1809. It included an article that obligated the king to protect each and everyone’s right to freely practice their religion. This seems like an introduction of religious freedom into Swedish law. However, general law prohibited Swedish citizens from deviating from lutheranian christianity. This thesis focuses on the seemingly contradictory relationship between constitution and general law, and also examines background of the 1809 constitution.

For a long time, the regulation of religion in Sweden sought to achieve religious unity in the country. This idea was still strong in 1809, and records from the debate in the parliament show that the founders of the constitution did not intend to create a right... (More)
Sweden adopted a new constitution in 1809. It included an article that obligated the king to protect each and everyone’s right to freely practice their religion. This seems like an introduction of religious freedom into Swedish law. However, general law prohibited Swedish citizens from deviating from lutheranian christianity. This thesis focuses on the seemingly contradictory relationship between constitution and general law, and also examines background of the 1809 constitution.

For a long time, the regulation of religion in Sweden sought to achieve religious unity in the country. This idea was still strong in 1809, and records from the debate in the parliament show that the founders of the constitution did not intend to create a right to convert. The rule allowing “free practice of religion” seems to have meant a right to choose how to manifest your lutheranian faith, for example by choosing whether or not to participate in the communion. There was still a strong assumption that all Swedish citizens should belong to the same church. The interpretation of the rule in question changed during the course of the 19th century, but since Swedish courts did not acknowledge a right to judicial review until in the 20th century, this did not mean that the law prohibiting conversion ceased to be applied.

Opinions differ on the extent of the enlightenment’s effects in Sweden, however this thesis concludes that it at least influenced the regulation of religion in the 1809 constitution. The constitution did create a sort of religious freedom in Sweden, although it was very limited, and one of the primary reasons for this was the influence of the neologians, a group of theologians who prioritised individual experiences of faith before the traditional dogmas of the church, something that can be linked to the strong belief in rationality and questioning of authorities that is often associated with the enlightenment. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Bergström, Matilda LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20181
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
rättshistoria, konstitutionell rätt, rättsvetenskap, statsrätt
language
Swedish
id
8941077
date added to LUP
2018-07-07 11:29:20
date last changed
2018-07-07 11:29:20
@misc{8941077,
  abstract     = {Sweden adopted a new constitution in 1809. It included an article that obligated the king to protect each and everyone’s right to freely practice their religion. This seems like an introduction of religious freedom into Swedish law. However, general law prohibited Swedish citizens from deviating from lutheranian christianity. This thesis focuses on the seemingly contradictory relationship between constitution and general law, and also examines background of the 1809 constitution.

For a long time, the regulation of religion in Sweden sought to achieve religious unity in the country. This idea was still strong in 1809, and records from the debate in the parliament show that the founders of the constitution did not intend to create a right to convert. The rule allowing “free practice of religion” seems to have meant a right to choose how to manifest your lutheranian faith, for example by choosing whether or not to participate in the communion. There was still a strong assumption that all Swedish citizens should belong to the same church. The interpretation of the rule in question changed during the course of the 19th century, but since Swedish courts did not acknowledge a right to judicial review until in the 20th century, this did not mean that the law prohibiting conversion ceased to be applied.

Opinions differ on the extent of the enlightenment’s effects in Sweden, however this thesis concludes that it at least influenced the regulation of religion in the 1809 constitution. The constitution did create a sort of religious freedom in Sweden, although it was very limited, and one of the primary reasons for this was the influence of the neologians, a group of theologians who prioritised individual experiences of faith before the traditional dogmas of the church, something that can be linked to the strong belief in rationality and questioning of authorities that is often associated with the enlightenment.},
  author       = {Bergström, Matilda},
  keyword      = {rättshistoria,konstitutionell rätt,rättsvetenskap,statsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Frihet att välja - så länge du väljer rätt. En studie av religionsfriheten i 1809 års regeringsform},
  year         = {2018},
}