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Digitaliseringens intåg i editionsplikten - En studie av möjligheterna till och problemen med edition av elektroniskt lagrad information i dispositiva tvistemål

Rhodin, Hanna LU (2018) JURM02 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I svensk rätt har vi en restriktiv syn på informationsinsamling. Ett editionsföreläggande är den möjlighet som finns att med domstolens hjälp få in skriftliga handlingar i processen från en motpart eller från tredje man. I lagtexten i 38 kap. RB anges uttryckligen att editionsplikten omfattar ”skriftliga handlingar”. I och med den tekniska utvecklingen återfinns numera en stor del av de handlingar som tidigare var skriftliga handlingar i elektronisk form. Den tekniska utvecklingen innebär därför att de handlingar som en editionssökande vill komma åt med stor sannolikhet är elektroniskt lagrade.

Vad gäller möjligheten att få in elektroniskt lagrad information i processen genom ett editionsföreläggande är rättsläget oklart. HD har i sitt... (More)
I svensk rätt har vi en restriktiv syn på informationsinsamling. Ett editionsföreläggande är den möjlighet som finns att med domstolens hjälp få in skriftliga handlingar i processen från en motpart eller från tredje man. I lagtexten i 38 kap. RB anges uttryckligen att editionsplikten omfattar ”skriftliga handlingar”. I och med den tekniska utvecklingen återfinns numera en stor del av de handlingar som tidigare var skriftliga handlingar i elektronisk form. Den tekniska utvecklingen innebär därför att de handlingar som en editionssökande vill komma åt med stor sannolikhet är elektroniskt lagrade.

Vad gäller möjligheten att få in elektroniskt lagrad information i processen genom ett editionsföreläggande är rättsläget oklart. HD har i sitt senaste prejudikat på området (NJA 1998 s. 829) konstaterat att det inte föreligger något hinder mot att utskrifter av elektronisk information omfattas av editionsplikten om en del av den information en editionssökande vill ha del av finns lagrad elektroniskt. Det råder dock skilda meningar om hur prejudikatet ska tolkas. Vissa antyder att handlingarna enbart kan företes i utskriftsform medan andra menar att prejudikatet medför en möjlighet till ett föreläggande av handlingarna i originalform. Rättsläget är alltså oklart.

Under 2017 presenterades en utredning (SOU 2017:100), i vilken ändringar i editionsreglerna föreslås. Lagförslaget innebär att 38 kap. RB ändras så att ”en upptagning av skrift som kan läsas, avlyssnas eller på något annat sätt uppfattas endast med tekniskt hjälpmedel” inkluderas i reglerna. Vidare föreslås att informationen ska kunna företes i den form som är lämplig utifrån ändamålet med beviset och de skyddsintressen som bör tas hänsyn till. Informationen kan alltså läggas fram i bland annat utskriftsform eller ursprungsform.

Om lagförslaget antas innebär det att rättsläget avseende möjligheten till edition av elektroniskt lagrad information klargörs. Dock uppstår det en mängd nya frågeställningar vid edition av elektroniskt lagrad information jämfört med de frågeställningar som kan uppstå vid edition av skriftliga handlingar. Elektroniskt lagrad information kan exempelvis företes i fler framställningsformer än en skriftlig handling. Om informationen är av komplicerad teknisk natur uppstår även frågan om vem som ska sammanställa den elektroniskt lagrade informationen. En speciell aspekt av elektroniskt lagrad information är att den kan inkludera metadata, det vill säga ”data om andra data”. Metadata kan ha stor betydelse i bevishänseende eftersom metadata kan inkludera exempelvis när, hur och av vem en handling har ändrats. Vad gäller ett editionsyrkande som inkluderar metadata uppstår bland annat frågan om hur domstolen ska förhålla sig till yrkandet om handlingens metadata innehåller skyddsvärd information. Slutligen uppstår frågan om hur domstolen ska gå tillväga vid sin bevisvärdering av den elektroniska informationen. Utredaren har reflekterat över en del av dessa frågeställningar. Det är emellertid många frågor som lämnas obesvarade och en stor del överlämnas till rättstillämpningen.

För att bibehålla förutsägbarheten i rättstillämpningen och därmed rättssäkerheten är det av vikt att domstolen ges tydliga riktlinjer för hur avvägningarna i de olika frågeställningarna som uppstår ska hanteras. Ett införande av ”en upptagning av skrift som kan läsas, avlyssnas eller på något annat sätt uppfattas endast med tekniskt hjälpmedel” innebär en mindre ändring i lagtexten i 38 kap RB men en stor ändring i rättsläget avseende edition. Det finns ett flertal aspekter att ta hänsyn till vid en ändring av rättsläget där elektroniskt lagrad information kan erhållas genom edition och där en stor del frågor överlämnas till rättstillämpningen. Trots att problemområdena är fler än de som aktualiseras vid edition av skriftliga handlingar, är de inte omöjliga att komma till rätta med ur rättssäkerhetssynpunkt. Om lagförslagen antas krävs det dock en stor kunskap hos domstolarna för att tillämpningen av editionsinstitutet även i fortsättningen ska vara förutsägbart och därmed rättssäkert. (Less)
Abstract
In the Swedish legal system, we have a restrictive view on information collection. The exclusive possibility in a civil action of obtaining written documents from the counterparty or a third party by the assistance of the court is by filing for a disclosure order. In Chapter 38 in the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure it is expressly stated that such orders apply to "written documents". Meanwhile, an effect of the technological development is that a large part of the previously written documents now are to be found in electronic form. Therefore, the technological development has resulted in a situation where the applicant for the disclosure order most certainly is interested in documents that are stored electronically.

The legal... (More)
In the Swedish legal system, we have a restrictive view on information collection. The exclusive possibility in a civil action of obtaining written documents from the counterparty or a third party by the assistance of the court is by filing for a disclosure order. In Chapter 38 in the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure it is expressly stated that such orders apply to "written documents". Meanwhile, an effect of the technological development is that a large part of the previously written documents now are to be found in electronic form. Therefore, the technological development has resulted in a situation where the applicant for the disclosure order most certainly is interested in documents that are stored electronically.

The legal situation is uncertain regarding the possibility of obtaining electronically stored information through a disclosure order. In its latest precedent in the field (NJA 1998 p. 829) the Swedish Supreme Court has stated that there is no legal limitation if a disclosure order includes print-outs of information that is stored electronically. However, the interpretation of the precedent differs. Some legal scholars suggest that the documents can be submitted only in the form of print-outs, while other legal scholars claim that the precedent provides an opportunity to submit the documents in their original form. Therefore, the legal situation is uncertain.

In 2017, a government committee was presented (SOU 2017:100), in which amendments in the rules for disclosure orders are proposed. The government committee proposes that Chapter 38 in the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure is to be changed so that a recording of writing that can be read, intercepted or otherwise perceived by technical means is included in the rules. Furthermore, it is proposed that if the information in a disclosure order is electronically stored, it should be possible to submit the information in the form appropriate for the particular case. The appropriate form should be decided by taking into account the purpose of the evidence and the interests of protection that should be maintained. The electronically stored information can thus be submitted in the form of print-outs or in its original form, among others.

If the suggested amendments of the rules are adopted, the legal situation regarding the possibility of disclosure orders including electronically stored information is somewhat clarified. However, a number of new issues may arise when a disclosure order includes electronically stored information compared with the issues that may arise when a disclosure order includes written documents. For instance, electronically stored information can be submitted in more and different formats than a written document. If the electronically stored information is of a complex technical nature, the question may arise as to who should compile the information. A particular aspect of electronically stored information is that it may include metadata, that is, “data about other data”. Metadata can be of great importance as evidence, as metadata may include, for example, when, how and by whom a document has been changed. When a disclosure order contains metadata, the question arises as to how the court should handle the motion if the metadata that the applicant wants to be disclosed contains protected information. Finally, the question of how the court should manage the electronic information in its evaluation of evidence may arise. In the government committee it is reflected on some of these issues. However, many questions are left unanswered and a large part of the uncertainties is to be handed over to the law enforcement.

In order to maintain the predictability in the law enforcement, and thus the legal certainty, it is of importance that the courts are given clear guidelines on how to deal with the various issues that may arise when a disclosure order includes electronically stored information. An amendment in law by including a recording of writing that can be read, intercepted or otherwise perceived by technical means results in a small change in the wording of the act but in a major change in the legal situation regarding disclosure orders. There are a number of aspects that need to be considered when changing the legal situation to an order where electronically stored information can be obtained by a disclosure order and where a large number of questions are handed over to the law enforcement. Although the problems arising may be more than those that may arise when the disclosure order includes written documents, they are not impossible to rectify from the aspect of legal certainty. However, if the amendments are passed a great deal of knowledge in the courts is required for the adjudication procedure to continue to be predictable and thus to uphold the legal certainty. (Less)
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author
Rhodin, Hanna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The entry of digitalization in disclosure orders - A study of the possibilities and problems, in cases amenable to out-of-court settlement, regarding disclosure orders containing electronically stored information
course
JURM02 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Civilprocessrätt, IT-rätt, Edition, Editionsföreläggande
language
Swedish
id
8941535
date added to LUP
2018-06-13 10:39:50
date last changed
2018-06-13 10:39:50
@misc{8941535,
  abstract     = {In the Swedish legal system, we have a restrictive view on information collection. The exclusive possibility in a civil action of obtaining written documents from the counterparty or a third party by the assistance of the court is by filing for a disclosure order. In Chapter 38 in the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure it is expressly stated that such orders apply to "written documents". Meanwhile, an effect of the technological development is that a large part of the previously written documents now are to be found in electronic form. Therefore, the technological development has resulted in a situation where the applicant for the disclosure order most certainly is interested in documents that are stored electronically. 

The legal situation is uncertain regarding the possibility of obtaining electronically stored information through a disclosure order. In its latest precedent in the field (NJA 1998 p. 829) the Swedish Supreme Court has stated that there is no legal limitation if a disclosure order includes print-outs of information that is stored electronically. However, the interpretation of the precedent differs. Some legal scholars suggest that the documents can be submitted only in the form of print-outs, while other legal scholars claim that the precedent provides an opportunity to submit the documents in their original form. Therefore, the legal situation is uncertain.

In 2017, a government committee was presented (SOU 2017:100), in which amendments in the rules for disclosure orders are proposed. The government committee proposes that Chapter 38 in the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure is to be changed so that a recording of writing that can be read, intercepted or otherwise perceived by technical means is included in the rules. Furthermore, it is proposed that if the information in a disclosure order is electronically stored, it should be possible to submit the information in the form appropriate for the particular case. The appropriate form should be decided by taking into account the purpose of the evidence and the interests of protection that should be maintained. The electronically stored information can thus be submitted in the form of print-outs or in its original form, among others.

If the suggested amendments of the rules are adopted, the legal situation regarding the possibility of disclosure orders including electronically stored information is somewhat clarified. However, a number of new issues may arise when a disclosure order includes electronically stored information compared with the issues that may arise when a disclosure order includes written documents. For instance, electronically stored information can be submitted in more and different formats than a written document. If the electronically stored information is of a complex technical nature, the question may arise as to who should compile the information. A particular aspect of electronically stored information is that it may include metadata, that is, “data about other data”. Metadata can be of great importance as evidence, as metadata may include, for example, when, how and by whom a document has been changed. When a disclosure order contains metadata, the question arises as to how the court should handle the motion if the metadata that the applicant wants to be disclosed contains protected information. Finally, the question of how the court should manage the electronic information in its evaluation of evidence may arise. In the government committee it is reflected on some of these issues. However, many questions are left unanswered and a large part of the uncertainties is to be handed over to the law enforcement.

In order to maintain the predictability in the law enforcement, and thus the legal certainty, it is of importance that the courts are given clear guidelines on how to deal with the various issues that may arise when a disclosure order includes electronically stored information. An amendment in law by including a recording of writing that can be read, intercepted or otherwise perceived by technical means results in a small change in the wording of the act but in a major change in the legal situation regarding disclosure orders. There are a number of aspects that need to be considered when changing the legal situation to an order where electronically stored information can be obtained by a disclosure order and where a large number of questions are handed over to the law enforcement. Although the problems arising may be more than those that may arise when the disclosure order includes written documents, they are not impossible to rectify from the aspect of legal certainty. However, if the amendments are passed a great deal of knowledge in the courts is required for the adjudication procedure to continue to be predictable and thus to uphold the legal certainty.},
  author       = {Rhodin, Hanna},
  keyword      = {Civilprocessrätt,IT-rätt,Edition,Editionsföreläggande},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Digitaliseringens intåg i editionsplikten - En studie av möjligheterna till och problemen med edition av elektroniskt lagrad information i dispositiva tvistemål},
  year         = {2018},
}