Advanced

En varmare planet - ett kvinnoproblem: Kvinnors möjlighet att få skydd från klimatrelaterade katastrofer genom flyktingstatus alternativt den miljörättsliga principen om "Common But Differentiated Resposibilities"

Andreasson, Josefine LU (2018) JURM02 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
Migration is a considerable, as well as an inevitable, consequence of climate change. As the frequency and dimension of climate change events increase, climate induced migration will increase as well. Not all states have contributed equally to the anthropogenic climate change, nor do they face the same risks connected with it. Furthermore, climate change does not affect everyone within a state in the same way, since some groups and individuals therein are more vulnerable than others. Women are often considered constituting one such group, who often, due to social and economic inequalities, are more adversely affected by climate change compared to men.

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the possibility of female climate migrants to... (More)
Migration is a considerable, as well as an inevitable, consequence of climate change. As the frequency and dimension of climate change events increase, climate induced migration will increase as well. Not all states have contributed equally to the anthropogenic climate change, nor do they face the same risks connected with it. Furthermore, climate change does not affect everyone within a state in the same way, since some groups and individuals therein are more vulnerable than others. Women are often considered constituting one such group, who often, due to social and economic inequalities, are more adversely affected by climate change compared to men.

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the possibility of female climate migrants to be granted refugee status under the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol, and also whether the international environmental law principle of "Common But Differentiated Responsibility" (CBDR) can offer this group of individuals protection by obliging states to receive them. I take a "Human Rights-Based Approach" (HRBA), since international human rights law is used to examine both possibilities for protection. Moreover, inspired by an intersectional risk perspective, I consider how the interplay between various systems of power result in women's vulnerability to climate change events.

Depending on such interplay, the vulnerability of women varies. A woman's vulnerability worsens if adversely affected by a climate change event, which, in turn, can result in serious denials or violations of basic human rights, which her home state is at least partly responsible for, because of its act or omission. Using a HRBA, a situation like this may amount to persecution, especially if the woman is exposed to intersectional discrimination. However, the remaining prerequisites in the refugee definition must be established before refugee status can be issued. Consequently, the possibility for female climate migrants to be granted refugee status exists, but is strongly limited, and therefore of little practical value for the women in need of protection.

While international refugee law is closely related to international human rights law, the relationship between international environmental law and international human rights law is less clear. The principle of CBDR takes into account that different states have contributed to the anthropogenic climate change to various degrees, and that different states do not have the same capabilities when it comes to responding to its consequences. According to the principle of CBDR, states have a common but differentiated responsibility to tackle climate change. A state's degree of responsibility depends, among other factors, on its resources, capabilities and economic development. If the principle of CBDR is extended in a way that allows it to take states' different socioeconomic capabilities to address various forms of discrimination and inequalities into account, the intersectional risk perspective may become the bridge between international environmental law and international human rights law that allows the principle of CBDR to identify a common but differentiated responsibility to receive female climate migrants. Such a responsibility is based on states' extraterritorial human rights obligations, and on the fact that states not only have contributed to the anthropogenic climate change and climate induced migration to various degrees, but also have different capabilities to address various forms of discrimination and inequalities. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Klimatrelaterad migration är en betydande och oundviklig konsekvens av klimatförändringarna, och något som kommer att ske alltmer i takt med att klimatrelaterade händelser och katastrofer sker med ökad frekvens och magnitud. Olika stater har bidragit olika mycket till de antropogena klimatförändringarna, med vilka riskerna är ojämnt fördelade mellan stater och områden världen över. Vidare är vissa grupper särskilt sårbara inför klimatförändringarnas effekter. Kvinnor anses ofta utgöra en sådan grupp, då de på grund av sociala och ekonomiska ojämlikheter ofta drabbas mer av klimatförändringarnas konsekvenser jämfört med män.

Mitt syfte med denna uppsats är att undersöka kvinnliga klimatmigranters möjlighet till skydd genom dels... (More)
Klimatrelaterad migration är en betydande och oundviklig konsekvens av klimatförändringarna, och något som kommer att ske alltmer i takt med att klimatrelaterade händelser och katastrofer sker med ökad frekvens och magnitud. Olika stater har bidragit olika mycket till de antropogena klimatförändringarna, med vilka riskerna är ojämnt fördelade mellan stater och områden världen över. Vidare är vissa grupper särskilt sårbara inför klimatförändringarnas effekter. Kvinnor anses ofta utgöra en sådan grupp, då de på grund av sociala och ekonomiska ojämlikheter ofta drabbas mer av klimatförändringarnas konsekvenser jämfört med män.

Mitt syfte med denna uppsats är att undersöka kvinnliga klimatmigranters möjlighet till skydd genom dels flyktingstatus enligt 1951 års flyktingkonvention och dess tilläggsprotokoll från 1967, dels den miljörättsliga principen om ”Common But Differentiated Responsibilities” (CBDR). Detta gör jag genom en ”Human Rights-Based Approach” (HRBA), då den internationella rätten om mänskliga rättigheter ligger till grund för båda möjligheterna, och inspirerad av det intersektionella riskperspektivet, då jag laborerar kring hur olika maktordningar skapar kvinnors sårbarhet inför klimatrelaterade händelser eller katastrofer.

Beroende på olika maktordningars samverkan varierar kvinnors sårbarhet, vilken förvärras då de drabbas av klimatförändringarnas effekter. Detta kan i sin tur resultera i nekanden eller kränkningar av grundläggande mänskliga rättigheter, vilka stater ofta är i alla fall delvis ansvariga för till följd av deras agerande eller underlåtenhet. Vid en sådan situation kan rekvisitet ”förföljelse” i flyktingdefinitionen, sett ur en HRBA, vara uppfyllt. Detta gäller särskilt om kvinnan är utsatt för intersektionell diskriminering. För att erhålla flyktingstatus måste dock även övriga rekvisit i bestämmelsen uppfyllas. Min slutsats är att kvinnliga klimatmigranter har möjlighet att erhålla flyktingstatus, men att denna möjlighet är starkt begränsad och därför av ett litet praktiskt värde för de kvinnor som behöver skydd.

Medan den internationella flyktingrätten ligger nära den internationella rätten om mänskliga rättigheter, är den internationella miljörättens relation till den internationella rätten om mänskliga rättigheter desto mer oklar. Principen om CBDR tar hänsyn till att olika stater har bidragit olika mycket till de antropogena klimatförändringarna, liksom att olika stater har olika möjligheter att bemöta dess konsekvenser. Principen innebär att stater har ett gemensamt, men olikartat ansvar att tackla klimatförändringarna. Hur stort ansvar en stat har beror bland annat på statens resurser, förmågor och ekonomiska utveckling. Genom att låta principen om CBDR även ta staters olika socioekonomiska förutsättningar att hantera exempelvis olika slags diskriminering och ojämlikheter i beaktning, kan det intersektionella riskperspektivet bli bryggan mellan den internationella miljörätten och den internationella rätten om mänskliga rättigheter. Genom principen om CBDR bör därför ett gemensamt men olikartat ansvar att ta emot kvinnliga klimatmigranter kunna identifieras. Detta argument baseras på att stater har ett visst extraterritoriellt ansvar för kvinnors mänskliga rättigheter. Argumentet baseras även på att stater dels har bidragit olika mycket till de antropogena klimatförändringarna och därmed till den klimatmigration som orsakas, dels har olika förutsättningar att hantera diskriminering samt ekonomiska och sociala ojämlikheter. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Andreasson, Josefine LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
A warmer planet - a women's issue: The possibility of female climate migrants to receive protection through refugee status or alternatively through the principle of "Common But Differentiated Responsibilities"
course
JURM02 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
folkrätt, klimatförändringar, migration, kvinnor, intersektionalitet
language
Swedish
id
8941780
date added to LUP
2018-06-13 10:38:53
date last changed
2018-07-09 15:51:25
@misc{8941780,
  abstract     = {Migration is a considerable, as well as an inevitable, consequence of climate change. As the frequency and dimension of climate change events increase, climate induced migration will increase as well. Not all states have contributed equally to the anthropogenic climate change, nor do they face the same risks connected with it. Furthermore, climate change does not affect everyone within a state in the same way, since some groups and individuals therein are more vulnerable than others. Women are often considered constituting one such group, who often, due to social and economic inequalities, are more adversely affected by climate change compared to men.

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the possibility of female climate migrants to be granted refugee status under the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol, and also whether the international environmental law principle of "Common But Differentiated Responsibility" (CBDR) can offer this group of individuals protection by obliging states to receive them. I take a "Human Rights-Based Approach" (HRBA), since international human rights law is used to examine both possibilities for protection. Moreover, inspired by an intersectional risk perspective, I consider how the interplay between various systems of power result in women's vulnerability to climate change events.

Depending on such interplay, the vulnerability of women varies. A woman's vulnerability worsens if adversely affected by a climate change event, which, in turn, can result in serious denials or violations of basic human rights, which her home state is at least partly responsible for, because of its act or omission. Using a HRBA, a situation like this may amount to persecution, especially if the woman is exposed to intersectional discrimination. However, the remaining prerequisites in the refugee definition must be established before refugee status can be issued. Consequently, the possibility for female climate migrants to be granted refugee status exists, but is strongly limited, and therefore of little practical value for the women in need of protection.

While international refugee law is closely related to international human rights law, the relationship between international environmental law and international human rights law is less clear. The principle of CBDR takes into account that different states have contributed to the anthropogenic climate change to various degrees, and that different states do not have the same capabilities when it comes to responding to its consequences. According to the principle of CBDR, states have a common but differentiated responsibility to tackle climate change. A state's degree of responsibility depends, among other factors, on its resources, capabilities and economic development. If the principle of CBDR is extended in a way that allows it to take states' different socioeconomic capabilities to address various forms of discrimination and inequalities into account, the intersectional risk perspective may become the bridge between international environmental law and international human rights law that allows the principle of CBDR to identify a common but differentiated responsibility to receive female climate migrants. Such a responsibility is based on states' extraterritorial human rights obligations, and on the fact that states not only have contributed to the anthropogenic climate change and climate induced migration to various degrees, but also have different capabilities to address various forms of discrimination and inequalities.},
  author       = {Andreasson, Josefine},
  keyword      = {folkrätt,klimatförändringar,migration,kvinnor,intersektionalitet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {En varmare planet - ett kvinnoproblem: Kvinnors möjlighet att få skydd från klimatrelaterade katastrofer genom flyktingstatus alternativt den miljörättsliga principen om "Common But Differentiated Resposibilities"},
  year         = {2018},
}