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Bostadsförsörjning för nyanlända

Ahlfors, Izabelle LU and Ullbrand, Ebba LU (2018) VFTM01 20181
Real Estate Science
Abstract
During the last 10 years approximately one million people have applied for asylum in Sweden and 163 000 only during the big stream of immigrants in 2015. This put a huge pressure on the Swedish management of immigrants and the housing for this group of people. The 1st of March 2016 the Swedish Government introduced a law where the Swedish municipalities are obligated to receive a certain number of immigrants. With this master thesis, the authors study housing for immigrants both historically and in modern time. Through a series of methods, the authors also enlighten the issues connected to housing for immigrants and proposals for improvements. The responsibility of housing for immigrants is divided between the Swedish Migration Agency, the... (More)
During the last 10 years approximately one million people have applied for asylum in Sweden and 163 000 only during the big stream of immigrants in 2015. This put a huge pressure on the Swedish management of immigrants and the housing for this group of people. The 1st of March 2016 the Swedish Government introduced a law where the Swedish municipalities are obligated to receive a certain number of immigrants. With this master thesis, the authors study housing for immigrants both historically and in modern time. Through a series of methods, the authors also enlighten the issues connected to housing for immigrants and proposals for improvements. The responsibility of housing for immigrants is divided between the Swedish Migration Agency, the Swedish Public Employment Service and the County Administrative Boards. The Swedish Migration Agency’s mission is to receive immigrants at arrival and provide temporary housing during the asylum period. At the end of the asylum period in the cases where the asylum seekers received residence permits, the immigrants are assigned to different counties and then to the municipalities of the county depending on labor conditions, population size, total amount of received refugees and the extent of asylum seekers in the municipality. During the period of this study, the municipalities of Sweden were asked to participate in a survey. The survey provided answers on how municipalities have been working with housing for immigrants since 2015, which problems they have been experiencing and proposals for improvement. The most common problems were the lack of tenancies and the fact that a couple of municipalities have a problem with residents moving away due to a lack of attractiveness and geographical location. Public housing is an important key for succeeding with housing for immigrants. It is obvious that municipalities without public housing have larger difficulties with providing housing for this group of people. Another part of the study consisted in observing the extent of discrimination in the Swedish rental market. The method used was an experiment made on Blocket.se where four fictitious characters with different ethnicities and gender applied for rental objects within the Swedish borders. The result indicated that de foreign man got 33 % less response than the Swedish woman. Therefore, it is safe to say that the responsibility of housing for immigrants should not be put in the hands of the immigrants since ethnical discrimination exists in the rental housing market. The authors of this report believe that expanding the housing stock by building new houses is one of the most important proposals for improvement because of the increasing population. However, it is important to build in the right way and for different groups of people by alternative pricing and forms of tenure. If this work, moving chains can be stimulated as well as counteracting segregation. It is also of importance that the existing property stock is being used in the most efficient way, because building new houses can be very time consuming. It is also a long term working progress with attracting more municipalities in order to receive a more geographically distribution of refugees and counteract residents moving away from municipalities after the establishment period. It is significant that immigrants are seen as a population category only during the establishment period who thereafter have the same needs and recourses as the rest of the population. We want to clarify that we are very impressed with the work the Swedish municipalities put into housing for refugees. With the given conditions every municipality have done their best considering their competences. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Under de senaste 10 åren har cirka en miljon människor sökt asyl i Sverige varav hela 163 000 enbart under 2015 när den stora flyktingvågen tog fart i världen. Detta satte stor press på Sveriges hantering av flyktingar och framförallt kommunernas bostadsförsörjningsansvar. Den 1 mars 2016 införde regeringen beslutet att kommunerna är skyldiga att ta emot ett visst antal nyanlända i syfte att ge dem bostad enligt bosättningslagen. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att studera hur bostadsförsörjningen för nyanlända har fungerat både historiskt och i modern tid och genom ett antal olika metoder belysa de problemställningar som finns idag. Med detta resultat togs åtgärdsförslag fram för hur man kan arbeta med frågan på ett bättre sätt... (More)
Under de senaste 10 åren har cirka en miljon människor sökt asyl i Sverige varav hela 163 000 enbart under 2015 när den stora flyktingvågen tog fart i världen. Detta satte stor press på Sveriges hantering av flyktingar och framförallt kommunernas bostadsförsörjningsansvar. Den 1 mars 2016 införde regeringen beslutet att kommunerna är skyldiga att ta emot ett visst antal nyanlända i syfte att ge dem bostad enligt bosättningslagen. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att studera hur bostadsförsörjningen för nyanlända har fungerat både historiskt och i modern tid och genom ett antal olika metoder belysa de problemställningar som finns idag. Med detta resultat togs åtgärdsförslag fram för hur man kan arbeta med frågan på ett bättre sätt fortsättningsvis.

Idag är ansvaret för bosättning av nyanlända fördelat mellan Migrationsverket, Arbetsförmedlingen och länsstyrelserna. Det är Migrationsverkets uppgift att ta emot flyktingar när de anländer till Sverige och förse dessa med boende under deras asylperiod. När denna löper ut och i de fall de asylsökande har fått beviljat uppehållstillstånd anvisas dessa till olika län som därefter anvisar till länets olika kommuner beroende på arbetsmarknadsförutsättningar, befolkningsstorlek, sammantaget mottagande av nyanlända samt omfattningen av asylsökande som vistas i kommunen.

Under studiens gång gjordes en enkätundersökning där Sveriges samtliga kommuner blev tillfrågade att medverka. Undersökningen gav svar på hur kommunerna försett nyanlända med bostäder sedan flyktingströmmen 2015, vad de upplevt för problem samt förbättringsförslag. De främsta problemen som skildrades var bland annat bristen på hyresrätter samt att en del kommuner brottas med utflyttning på grund av en bristande attraktivitet i olika hänseenden så som arbetsmarknad och geografiskt läge. Allmännyttan är en viktig framgångsfaktor för en lyckad bostadsförsörjning så i de kommuner där kommunala bostadsbolag saknas finns en uppförsbacke då det är det vanligaste sättet att förse nyanlända med bostäder.

En annan del av studien bestod av att undersöka om och i vilken omfattning diskriminering förekommer på hyresmarknaden. Detta genomfördes som ett experiment på förmedlingssajten Blocket.se där fyra fiktiva karaktärer med olika etniciteter och kön svarade på utannonserade bostäder runt om i Sverige. Resultatet visade att den utländska mannen fick 33 % färre svar än den svenska kvinnan. Med hänsyn till detta drogs slutsatsen att ansvaret för nyanländas bostadsförsörjning inte bör läggas i de nyanländas händer då det förkommer etnisk diskriminering på hyresmarknaden. Författarna av denna rapport tror att nyproduktion är ett av de viktigaste åtgärdsförslagen i och med en ökande befolkningsmängd. Däremot är det viktigt att det byggs på rätt sätt och för olika målgrupper genom alternativa prisgrupper och upplåtelseformer. Om detta uppnås kan vi både stimulera flyttkedjor samtidigt som segregation motverkas. Med det sagt är det också väsentligt att nyttja beståndet bättre då nyproduktion är en process som är tidskrävande. Det är också viktigt att det sker ett långsiktigt arbete i att göra kommunerna mer attraktiva så vi får en bättre geografisk spridning av nyanlända och motverkar utflyttningsproblem efter nyanländas etableringstid. Slutligen skall poängteras att invandrare enbart bör ses som en befolkningskategori under etableringstiden och därefter har samma behov och resurser som resten av befolkningen.

Vi vill förtydliga att vi är väldigt imponerade av det arbete med bostadsförsörjning för nyanlända som Sveriges kommuner lagt ned. Med förutsättningarna som getts har alla gjort sitt yttersta utifrån sina kompetenser. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ahlfors, Izabelle LU and Ullbrand, Ebba LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Housing provision for immigrants
course
VFTM01 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Bostadsförsörjning, nyanlända, integration, segregation, flyktingar, asylsökande
other publication id
ISRN/LUTVDG/TVLM/18/5408 SE
language
Swedish
id
8945979
date added to LUP
2018-06-07 14:43:09
date last changed
2018-06-07 14:43:09
@misc{8945979,
  abstract     = {During the last 10 years approximately one million people have applied for asylum in Sweden and 163 000 only during the big stream of immigrants in 2015. This put a huge pressure on the Swedish management of immigrants and the housing for this group of people. The 1st of March 2016 the Swedish Government introduced a law where the Swedish municipalities are obligated to receive a certain number of immigrants. With this master thesis, the authors study housing for immigrants both historically and in modern time. Through a series of methods, the authors also enlighten the issues connected to housing for immigrants and proposals for improvements. The responsibility of housing for immigrants is divided between the Swedish Migration Agency, the Swedish Public Employment Service and the County Administrative Boards. The Swedish Migration Agency’s mission is to receive immigrants at arrival and provide temporary housing during the asylum period. At the end of the asylum period in the cases where the asylum seekers received residence permits, the immigrants are assigned to different counties and then to the municipalities of the county depending on labor conditions, population size, total amount of received refugees and the extent of asylum seekers in the municipality. During the period of this study, the municipalities of Sweden were asked to participate in a survey. The survey provided answers on how municipalities have been working with housing for immigrants since 2015, which problems they have been experiencing and proposals for improvement. The most common problems were the lack of tenancies and the fact that a couple of municipalities have a problem with residents moving away due to a lack of attractiveness and geographical location. Public housing is an important key for succeeding with housing for immigrants. It is obvious that municipalities without public housing have larger difficulties with providing housing for this group of people. Another part of the study consisted in observing the extent of discrimination in the Swedish rental market. The method used was an experiment made on Blocket.se where four fictitious characters with different ethnicities and gender applied for rental objects within the Swedish borders. The result indicated that de foreign man got 33 % less response than the Swedish woman. Therefore, it is safe to say that the responsibility of housing for immigrants should not be put in the hands of the immigrants since ethnical discrimination exists in the rental housing market. The authors of this report believe that expanding the housing stock by building new houses is one of the most important proposals for improvement because of the increasing population. However, it is important to build in the right way and for different groups of people by alternative pricing and forms of tenure. If this work, moving chains can be stimulated as well as counteracting segregation. It is also of importance that the existing property stock is being used in the most efficient way, because building new houses can be very time consuming. It is also a long term working progress with attracting more municipalities in order to receive a more geographically distribution of refugees and counteract residents moving away from municipalities after the establishment period. It is significant that immigrants are seen as a population category only during the establishment period who thereafter have the same needs and recourses as the rest of the population. We want to clarify that we are very impressed with the work the Swedish municipalities put into housing for refugees. With the given conditions every municipality have done their best considering their competences.},
  author       = {Ahlfors, Izabelle and Ullbrand, Ebba},
  keyword      = {Bostadsförsörjning,nyanlända,integration,segregation,flyktingar,asylsökande},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Bostadsförsörjning för nyanlända},
  year         = {2018},
}