Advanced

Ingen Klimako på Isen

Kryger, Johanne LU (2018) MVEM30 20181
Studies in Environmental Science
Abstract
This study investigates which possible incremental solutions there are for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases from the largest sources of emissions in Danish agriculture and they are implemented by national measures. This is important because Denmark is required to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from the sectors that are not part of the European Emission Trade System with 39% by 2030 in the most cost-effective way. Studies shows that reductions in emissions is most cost-effectively achieved if agriculture contributes.
First two literature reviews have been conducted to find solutions that shows consistent results in reducing emissions from agriculture. A path dependence analysis is conducted to make it possible to propose... (More)
This study investigates which possible incremental solutions there are for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases from the largest sources of emissions in Danish agriculture and they are implemented by national measures. This is important because Denmark is required to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from the sectors that are not part of the European Emission Trade System with 39% by 2030 in the most cost-effective way. Studies shows that reductions in emissions is most cost-effectively achieved if agriculture contributes.
First two literature reviews have been conducted to find solutions that shows consistent results in reducing emissions from agriculture. A path dependence analysis is conducted to make it possible to propose implementations measures that is consistent with former regulations.
The study shows that the best solutions to reduce emissions from agriculture is:
• Biogas production
• Acidification of slurry
• Solid cover of slurry tanks
The expansion of the Danish biogas production has been going in a reasonable pace the past five year. Therefore, it is recommended that the existing subsidies for biogas is continued. Alternatively, the government’s proposal to subsidies that priorities upgraded biogas can be implemented.
Acidification of slurry should be implemented as a legal requirement to all new livestock buildings. Legal requirement is recommended for acidification because a fee on slurry that is not acidified or digested will lead to an unavoidable fee on large parts of organic slurry because acidification is not possible in organic agriculture and the possibilities for digestion is limited and subsidies has proven ineffective.
Solid cover of slurry tanks should be implemented by an expansion of the existing differentiated legal requirements of solid cover to include requirements of solid cover for slurry tanks of a certain size or for farms of a certain livestock unit. (Less)
Popular Abstract (Danish)
Implementering af klimaløsninger i landbruget
Det danske landbrug står for hele 21,5% af de nationale udslip af drivhusgasser. Derfor er der behov for at implementere løsninger, der kan mindske udslippet af drivhusgasser fra landbruget, hvis Danmark opfylde sine EU-reduktionsmål på 39% i ikke-kvotesektoren. De løsninger, der med størst sikkerhed leder til et lavere udslip af drivhusgasser i landbrugssektoren er:
• At gyllen behandles i biogasanlæg
• At gyllen forsures ved at tilsætte svovlsyre
• At gylletanke forsynes med fast overdækning fremfor en flydende overdækning bestående af for eksempel afskårne strå
Etablering af biogasanlæg har været på den politiske dagsorden siden 1980’erne og har været karakteriseret ved at gå langsom,... (More)
Implementering af klimaløsninger i landbruget
Det danske landbrug står for hele 21,5% af de nationale udslip af drivhusgasser. Derfor er der behov for at implementere løsninger, der kan mindske udslippet af drivhusgasser fra landbruget, hvis Danmark opfylde sine EU-reduktionsmål på 39% i ikke-kvotesektoren. De løsninger, der med størst sikkerhed leder til et lavere udslip af drivhusgasser i landbrugssektoren er:
• At gyllen behandles i biogasanlæg
• At gyllen forsures ved at tilsætte svovlsyre
• At gylletanke forsynes med fast overdækning fremfor en flydende overdækning bestående af for eksempel afskårne strå
Etablering af biogasanlæg har været på den politiske dagsorden siden 1980’erne og har været karakteriseret ved at gå langsom, at biogassen er blevet anvendt til produktion af kraftvarme, og at kommunerne har været involveret. Regeringen vil med sit energiudspil reducere kraftigt i tilskuddet til kraftvarmeproducerende biogas, mens tilskuddet til biogas til andre formål kun reduceres minimal. Da kommunerne kun må involvere sig i biogasprojekter til kraftvarme, vil deres rolle i fremtidig etablering af biogasanlæg være minimal. De seneste 4 år er 9 af de eksisterende 27 fælles biogasanlæg etableret. Af disse 9 anlæg opgraderer 8 anlæg biogassen og de er ejet af eksterne aktører, som er interesserede i at etablere flere biogasanlæg i Danmark. Dette leder til en vurdering af, at det bedste virkemiddel til at sikre etableringen af biogasanlæg i fremtiden er en fortsættelse af de eksisterende tilskud eller regeringens tilskudsmodel. Med regeringens tilskudsmodel bliver det dog svært at etablere økologiske biogasanlæg, som er vigtige for økologiomlægning. Det skyldes, at økologiske husdyrbrug er placeret så spredt, at det er vanskeligt at samle store nok gyllemængder til, at det er en økonomisk rentabelt at opgradere biogassen. Derfor bør regeringens energiudspil suppleres af et tilskud til mindre kraftvarmeproducerende biogasanlæg.
Siden 2006 har det været muligt at etablere forsuringsanlæg som alternativ til flydende overdækning. Den primære årsag til at etablere forsuringsanlæg er for at opnå miljøgodkendelse til etablering eller ombygning af staldanlæg. På trods af at forsuring er forsøgt fremmet med tilskud på op til 40% af etableringsomkostningerne, er der i dag kun omkring 150 forsuringsanlæg i Danmark. Derfor anses tilskud som enkeltstående virkemiddel ikke som et hensigtsmæssigt virkemiddel. En afgift på gylle der ikke enten afgasses eller forsures vil mange steder betyde en uomgængelig afgift for økologisk husdyrproduktion, fordi forsuring ikke er tilladt i økologisk jordbrug. En økologidispensation for en sådan afgift vil være i strid med EU-regler. Da hverken tilskud eller afgift er hensigtsmæssigt, anbefales et lovkrav om forsuring for alle ny staldanlæg.
Fast eller flydende overdækning af gylletanke blev lovpligtigt i 1988, men fordi flydende overdækning er væsentligt billigere, er dette den foretrukne løsning. Lovkravet om overdækning er sidenhen blevet skærpet, således at gylletanke under 300 meter fra naboer eller ammoniakfølsom natur skal have fast overdækning. Der er et problem med, at flydende overdækning ikke følger loven, hvilket har gjort at kommuner skal stille krav om fast overdækning, hvis kommunen flere gange har oplevet utæt flydende overdækning på en bedrift. Landbruget modvilje mod fast overdækning gør et generelt lovkrav urealistisk, derfor anbefales en udvidelse af det eksisterende lovkrav, så det medtager gylletanke af en vis størrelse eller bedrifter med et vist antal dyreenheder. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Kryger, Johanne LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
En undersøgelse af hvordan Danmark med nationale virkemidler kan reducere landbrugets udledninger af drivhusgasser
course
MVEM30 20181
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Climate change, mitigation, agriculture, manure management, biogas, acidification
language
Danish
id
8946785
date added to LUP
2018-06-12 09:29:09
date last changed
2018-06-12 09:29:09
@misc{8946785,
  abstract     = {This study investigates which possible incremental solutions there are for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases from the largest sources of emissions in Danish agriculture and they are implemented by national measures. This is important because Denmark is required to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from the sectors that are not part of the European Emission Trade System with 39% by 2030 in the most cost-effective way. Studies shows that reductions in emissions is most cost-effectively achieved if agriculture contributes.
First two literature reviews have been conducted to find solutions that shows consistent results in reducing emissions from agriculture. A path dependence analysis is conducted to make it possible to propose implementations measures that is consistent with former regulations.
The study shows that the best solutions to reduce emissions from agriculture is:
•	Biogas production
•	Acidification of slurry
•	Solid cover of slurry tanks
The expansion of the Danish biogas production has been going in a reasonable pace the past five year. Therefore, it is recommended that the existing subsidies for biogas is continued. Alternatively, the government’s proposal to subsidies that priorities upgraded biogas can be implemented.
Acidification of slurry should be implemented as a legal requirement to all new livestock buildings. Legal requirement is recommended for acidification because a fee on slurry that is not acidified or digested will lead to an unavoidable fee on large parts of organic slurry because acidification is not possible in organic agriculture and the possibilities for digestion is limited and subsidies has proven ineffective.
Solid cover of slurry tanks should be implemented by an expansion of the existing differentiated legal requirements of solid cover to include requirements of solid cover for slurry tanks of a certain size or for farms of a certain livestock unit.},
  author       = {Kryger, Johanne},
  keyword      = {Climate change,mitigation,agriculture,manure management,biogas,acidification},
  language     = {dan},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Ingen Klimako på Isen},
  year         = {2018},
}