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An Energy Efficient Radio Base Station

Bjering, Olof LU and Prasad, Lakshmi (2018) EITM01 20181
Department of Electrical and Information Technology
Abstract
The mobile telecommunication network is growing year after year and it will soon
move into the high speed 5G and Internet of Things technology. These new technologies
will improve the throughput and data connectivity and due to that the
energy consumption in radio and digital units may increase in a Radio Base Station
(RBS). There are more than 500 000 off-grid RBSs in the world which are
powered by diesel generators. This results in air pollution, green house gas emission
and high fuel and maintenance costs for the operators. The main objective
of this thesis is to find ways to bring down the energy consumption in radio and
digital units and check the viability of a solar powered site instead of a dieselpowered
site. This has... (More)
The mobile telecommunication network is growing year after year and it will soon
move into the high speed 5G and Internet of Things technology. These new technologies
will improve the throughput and data connectivity and due to that the
energy consumption in radio and digital units may increase in a Radio Base Station
(RBS). There are more than 500 000 off-grid RBSs in the world which are
powered by diesel generators. This results in air pollution, green house gas emission
and high fuel and maintenance costs for the operators. The main objective
of this thesis is to find ways to bring down the energy consumption in radio and
digital units and check the viability of a solar powered site instead of a dieselpowered
site. This has been done for an LTE network. The current power save
features developed by Ericsson has been studied and two new power save features
have been implemented. The first is an innovative algorithm that optimizes the
cooling in the baseband to obtain a minimal power consumption, this method was
proved to work even in scenarios with large variations in ambient temperature. An
Eco-mode algorithm was tried on few radio units, where the biasing of the power
amplifiers was reduced in low load scenarios. This reduced the power consumption
of each radio unit with up to 3.4% in the test cases described in the thesis. Finally,
the design and economic analysis of a solar powered radio base station was performed,
in order to recommend an energy efficient, sustainable and cost-effective
option to mobile operators that would relieve the stress of regular maintenance
and increased expenses. It showed that a combination of solar panels and diesel
generator is the most economical and environment friendly solution. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Towards Energy Efficient Mobile Networks
With the emergence of new mobile technologies and growing network, the
necessity for energy efficient mobile networks becomes more and more significant.
Energy efficient radio and digital units powered by environment friendly solar
energy will be a better alternative to the current diesel generator powered base
stations. As part of the thesis we have learned and worked with the hardware and
software parts of the radio and baseband units. In order to come up with novel
and innovative ideas to improve energy efficiency of radio and baseband units,
a study of already available power save methods was done. There are different
kinds of power save methods, some are pure optimizations where the... (More)
Towards Energy Efficient Mobile Networks
With the emergence of new mobile technologies and growing network, the
necessity for energy efficient mobile networks becomes more and more significant.
Energy efficient radio and digital units powered by environment friendly solar
energy will be a better alternative to the current diesel generator powered base
stations. As part of the thesis we have learned and worked with the hardware and
software parts of the radio and baseband units. In order to come up with novel
and innovative ideas to improve energy efficiency of radio and baseband units,
a study of already available power save methods was done. There are different
kinds of power save methods, some are pure optimizations where the base station
uses less power without affecting the performance while others will intentionally
reduce the performance in scenarios when and where maximum performance is
not required. In the thesis there is one power save method of each kind, one that
optimizes the use of cooling equipment in the baseband and one that reduces the
power consumption in the radio at low load.
The baseband is the part of the radio base station that handles the logic and
processing of the data. It contains electronic and electrical components within
it and will therefore require a cooling equipment to protect it from overheating.
For the baseband that was used in the thesis the cooling is performed by a fan
connected to one side of the unit. The fan reads out the values from certain temperature
sensors and will increase the fan speed if there is a risk of overheating. But
another issue with high temperature is that it will increase the power consumption
of the baseband due to thermal leakage. In order to decrease the temperature and
thus the power consumption, the fan speed can be increased. This will however
result in a higher power consumption for the fan itself. It was seen that one can
find a fan speed for each scenario where the total power consumption is at its
lowest. An innovative algorithm was implemented that continuously adjusts the
fan speed in order to minimize the total power consumption.
The radio unit uses a bandwidth which allows it to transmit data at different
frequencies. There is a power amplifier that can amplify the signal at all the
available frequencies. In a lot of cases this is unnecessary since the load is much
lower than the maximum throughput of the base station. A power save feature
named ECO-mode was implemented that will reduce the biasing of the power
amplifier. This limits the available throughput and it was used to save power
in scenarios where the maximum throughput is not needed. An algorithm was
developed that can turn on or off this mode depending on the load.
Installation of an off grid base station powered with a diesel generator is not
only a costly affair but also an environment concern in that area. This problem
can be reduced by using renewable energy sources that are pollution free and has
lower costs in the long run. The steps to design a solar powered base station has
been explained and analyzed in the thesis. A cost analysis was done with the
three different power options; a fully solar, fully diesel and a combination of both
to find the best alternative among them. The combined option was found to be
most cost-effective among them. The optimal portion of each power source would
give the lowest cost and this is individual to each location and power requirement
of the site.
vi (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Bjering, Olof LU and Prasad, Lakshmi
supervisor
organization
course
EITM01 20181
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Telecommunication, Energy efficiency, Radio Base Station, Solar Cells
report number
LU/LTH-EIT 2018-663
language
English
id
8958020
date added to LUP
2018-09-06 09:21:03
date last changed
2018-09-06 10:56:10
@misc{8958020,
  abstract     = {The mobile telecommunication network is growing year after year and it will soon
move into the high speed 5G and Internet of Things technology. These new technologies
will improve the throughput and data connectivity and due to that the
energy consumption in radio and digital units may increase in a Radio Base Station
(RBS). There are more than 500 000 off-grid RBSs in the world which are
powered by diesel generators. This results in air pollution, green house gas emission
and high fuel and maintenance costs for the operators. The main objective
of this thesis is to find ways to bring down the energy consumption in radio and
digital units and check the viability of a solar powered site instead of a dieselpowered
site. This has been done for an LTE network. The current power save
features developed by Ericsson has been studied and two new power save features
have been implemented. The first is an innovative algorithm that optimizes the
cooling in the baseband to obtain a minimal power consumption, this method was
proved to work even in scenarios with large variations in ambient temperature. An
Eco-mode algorithm was tried on few radio units, where the biasing of the power
amplifiers was reduced in low load scenarios. This reduced the power consumption
of each radio unit with up to 3.4% in the test cases described in the thesis. Finally,
the design and economic analysis of a solar powered radio base station was performed,
in order to recommend an energy efficient, sustainable and cost-effective
option to mobile operators that would relieve the stress of regular maintenance
and increased expenses. It showed that a combination of solar panels and diesel
generator is the most economical and environment friendly solution.},
  author       = {Bjering, Olof and Prasad, Lakshmi},
  keyword      = {Telecommunication,Energy efficiency,Radio Base Station,Solar Cells},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {An Energy Efficient Radio Base Station},
  year         = {2018},
}