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Våldtäkt - På distans. En granskning av begreppet våldtäkt

Carlsson, Maja LU (2019) JURM02 20192
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I det generella begreppet våldtäkt har våld inbegripits som en självklar omständighet i många hundra år. Det har även varit ett krav i lagstiftning. I dagens sexualbrottslagstiftning är det inte längre ett krav. En våldtäkt kan begås på internet genom medgärningsmannaskap eller om det med hänsyn till kränkningens allvar är att jämföra med samlag. Av media framkommer det att detta är något unikt för Sverige. Andra länder som Danmark och Norge benämner det snarare som grooming eller nätövergrepp. Innebörden av både begreppet våld och våldtäkt har över tid förändrats i takt med samhällets förändring samt värderingar. Båda begreppen har fått utvidgade innebörd. Innebörder som har varit en utmaning för den svenska lagstiftaren att tillmötesgå.... (More)
I det generella begreppet våldtäkt har våld inbegripits som en självklar omständighet i många hundra år. Det har även varit ett krav i lagstiftning. I dagens sexualbrottslagstiftning är det inte längre ett krav. En våldtäkt kan begås på internet genom medgärningsmannaskap eller om det med hänsyn till kränkningens allvar är att jämföra med samlag. Av media framkommer det att detta är något unikt för Sverige. Andra länder som Danmark och Norge benämner det snarare som grooming eller nätövergrepp. Innebörden av både begreppet våld och våldtäkt har över tid förändrats i takt med samhällets förändring samt värderingar. Båda begreppen har fått utvidgade innebörd. Innebörder som har varit en utmaning för den svenska lagstiftaren att tillmötesgå. Uppsatsen syftar därför till att utreda och granska motiven, gällande rätt och rättstillämpningen som motiverar att våldtäkt är möjligt på distans. För att kunna få klarhet i detta har en analys av våldtäktsbegreppet gjorts vilket inbegripit en frågeställning avseende definitionen av våld och våldtäkt ur ett historiskt och nutida perspektiv. Begreppet våldtäkt har ifrågasatts huruvida det ska bytas ut eftersom det inte längre krävs våld eller egenhändighet. Våld har utvecklats till att även omfatta psykisk form. Genom att fördjupa mig i våldtäktsbegreppets historia, då och nu gällande rätt samt rättsfall, har jag kunnat utröna att lagstiftaren haft svårigheter i att möta rätt och samhälle i just dessa frågor. En utvidgning av begreppet våld anser jag som legitim och välgrundad men det innebär inte per automatik att en utvidgning av våldtäkt som begrepp är legitim och välgrundad. Framställningen visar därmed att det finns anledning att överväga en separation mellan fysiska och virtuella våldtäkter genom olika lagstiftning. Det står klart att det är lika allvarligt oavsett om det skett fysiskt eller på internet. Våldtäktsbegreppet har varit föremål för diskussion huruvida det ska ersättas med hänvisning till att det idag kan ske på internet. Det har vidare funnits en rädsla för att begreppet ska urholkas och tappa sin indikation på allvarlighet. Men det är inte en fråga om allvarligheten i brottet, snarare en fråga om att möta rätt och samhälle med legalitet som grund och definiera ett brott för vad det verkligen motsvarar. (Less)
Abstract
For hundreds of years, violence has been included as an integral part in the general definition of rape as well as a requirement in the legislation of rape offense charges. Today, however, violence is no longer a requirement in sexual offenses legislation. A rape can be committed on the internet through fellowship or if it is compared to sexual intercourse, given the gravity of the violation. From media, it appears that this is something unique to Sweden. Other countries such as Denmark and Norway refer to it as grooming or virtual sexual abuse. The meaning of both the concept of violence and the definition of rape have changed over time as society has shifted and its values. Both concepts have expanded their meanings. This societal change... (More)
For hundreds of years, violence has been included as an integral part in the general definition of rape as well as a requirement in the legislation of rape offense charges. Today, however, violence is no longer a requirement in sexual offenses legislation. A rape can be committed on the internet through fellowship or if it is compared to sexual intercourse, given the gravity of the violation. From media, it appears that this is something unique to Sweden. Other countries such as Denmark and Norway refer to it as grooming or virtual sexual abuse. The meaning of both the concept of violence and the definition of rape have changed over time as society has shifted and its values. Both concepts have expanded their meanings. This societal change has been a challenge for the Swedish legislature to meet. This thesis, therefore, aims to investigate and examine the motives and the legal application that postulates that rape is possible to commit on internet. In order to clarify this, an analysis of the concept of rape has been made, which included a question regarding the definition of violence and rape from a historical and contemporary perspective. In recent years, due to changing societal values, the concept and definition of both rape and of violence have been questioned and changed. Violence has evolved to include mental forms, and rape has expanded to include acts committed without physical abuse or contact. By immersing myself in the historical concepts and legal applications of rape, including reviewing prior legal cases, and comparing these to contemporary societal views, I have been able to find out that the legislator had experienced difficulties in merging the current law and societal beliefs on these particular issues. I consider an extension of the concept of violence to be legitimate and well-founded, but that does not automatically mean that an extension of rape as a concept is legitimate and well-founded. This petition thus shows that there is reason to consider a separation between physical and virtual rape through different legislation. It is clear, however, that it is equally serious, whether it has been committed physically or committed on the Internet. The concept of rape has been the subject of discussion as to whether it should be replaced with reference to the fact that it can today take place on the Internet. Furthermore, there has been a fear that the concept will be eroded and lose its indication of seriousness. But it is not a matter of the seriousness of the crime, but rather a question of meeting law and society with legality as the basis and defining a crime for what it really corresponds to. (Less)
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@misc{8999050,
  abstract     = {For hundreds of years, violence has been included as an integral part in the general definition of rape as well as a requirement in the legislation of rape offense charges. Today, however, violence is no longer a requirement in sexual offenses legislation. A rape can be committed on the internet through fellowship or if it is compared to sexual intercourse, given the gravity of the violation. From media, it appears that this is something unique to Sweden. Other countries such as Denmark and Norway refer to it as grooming or virtual sexual abuse. The meaning of both the concept of violence and the definition of rape have changed over time as society has shifted and its values. Both concepts have expanded their meanings. This societal change has been a challenge for the Swedish legislature to meet. This thesis, therefore, aims to investigate and examine the motives and the legal application that postulates that rape is possible to commit on internet. In order to clarify this, an analysis of the concept of rape has been made, which included a question regarding the definition of violence and rape from a historical and contemporary perspective. In recent years, due to changing societal values, the concept and definition of both rape and of violence have been questioned and changed. Violence has evolved to include mental forms, and rape has expanded to include acts committed without physical abuse or contact. By immersing myself in the historical concepts and legal applications of rape, including reviewing prior legal cases, and comparing these to contemporary societal views, I have been able to find out that the legislator had experienced difficulties in merging the current law and societal beliefs on these particular issues. I consider an extension of the concept of violence to be legitimate and well-founded, but that does not automatically mean that an extension of rape as a concept is legitimate and well-founded. This petition thus shows that there is reason to consider a separation between physical and virtual rape through different legislation. It is clear, however, that it is equally serious, whether it has been committed physically or committed on the Internet. The concept of rape has been the subject of discussion as to whether it should be replaced with reference to the fact that it can today take place on the Internet. Furthermore, there has been a fear that the concept will be eroded and lose its indication of seriousness. But it is not a matter of the seriousness of the crime, but rather a question of meeting law and society with legality as the basis and defining a crime for what it really corresponds to.},
  author       = {Carlsson, Maja},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,våldtäkt,sexualbrottslagstiftning,våldtäkt på distans,våldtäkt på internet,nätövergrepp,virtuell våldtäkt,grooming,sexuellt övergrepp,sexuella övergrepp på internet,makt,psykiskt våld,rättssociologi,brottsbalken,sexualbrott,medgärningsmannaskap,egenhändighet,våldtäktsbegrepp,våld,våldsbegrepp,signalvärde,NJA 2015 s. 501,nätsmart,sexuell frihet,sexuell integritet,sexuell självbestämmanderätt,legalitetsprincipen,sexuell handling,påtaglig sexuell prägel,med hänsyn till kränkningens allvar},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Våldtäkt - På distans. En granskning av begreppet våldtäkt},
  year         = {2019},
}