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Straffvärdebedömning vid penningtvättsbrott

Banaee, Narin LU (2020) LAGF03 20201
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
En följd av den nya lagen (2014:307) om straff för penningtvättsbrott har varit att ett flertal myndigheter, i diverse rapporter, riktat kritik mot att det råder brist på rättspraxis avseende straffvärdebedömningar i mål om penningtvättsbrott. Utöver dessa myndighetspublikationer är litteraturen om den straffrättsliga regleringen av penningtvättsbrott knapphändig. Det har därför varit av intresse att utreda och analysera hur domstolen fastställer straffvärdet i mål on penningtvättsbrott.

Ifrågavarande uppsats syftar till att utreda hur domstolen gör och bör göra en straffvärdebedömning i mål om penningtvättsbrott. Utredningen behandlar endast grovt penningtvättsbrott och penningtvättsbrott av normalgraden. Därutöver syftar... (More)
En följd av den nya lagen (2014:307) om straff för penningtvättsbrott har varit att ett flertal myndigheter, i diverse rapporter, riktat kritik mot att det råder brist på rättspraxis avseende straffvärdebedömningar i mål om penningtvättsbrott. Utöver dessa myndighetspublikationer är litteraturen om den straffrättsliga regleringen av penningtvättsbrott knapphändig. Det har därför varit av intresse att utreda och analysera hur domstolen fastställer straffvärdet i mål on penningtvättsbrott.

Ifrågavarande uppsats syftar till att utreda hur domstolen gör och bör göra en straffvärdebedömning i mål om penningtvättsbrott. Utredningen behandlar endast grovt penningtvättsbrott och penningtvättsbrott av normalgraden. Därutöver syftar undersökningen till att analysera om det, mot bakgrund av gängse rättspraxis, finns enhetliga och förutsebara riktlinjer för hur dessa straffvärdebedömningar ska göras. För att uppnå dessa syften har det således varit viktigt att undersöka domstolsavgöranden, varför uppsatsen behandlar 16 rättsfall från HD samt olika hovrätter.

Av rättsfallsanalysen har det framkommit att vid straffvärdebedömningar tillmäts egendomens värde en stor betydelse. HD har i ett avgörande fastställt att om egendomens värde uppgår till 18 prisbasbelopp, ungefär 870 000 kronor, motsvarar detta som utgångspunkt ett års fängelse. Som det har framgått är egendomens värde avgörande för fastställandet av det slutliga straffvärdet. Utifrån vad som framkommit kan det dock konstateras att det är problematiskt att egendomens värde beaktas i så stor utsträckning vid en straffvärdebedömning. Detta då det finns andra faktorer som bör beaktas i större omfattning. Sådana omständigheter kan exempelvis vara den tilltalades delaktighet vid penningtvättsbrottet samt de penningtvättsåtgärder som denne har vidtagit.

Därutöver har det framgått att rättspraxis avseende penningtvättsbrott av normalgraden är mer enhetlig och förutsebar jämfört med motsvarande rättspraxis för grovt penningtvättsbrott. Detta beror antagligen på att det finns klarare hållpunkter för hur straffvärdebedömningen ska göras i mål om penningtvättsbrott av normalgraden. För grovt penningtvättsbrott är det mer oklart hur domstolen gör en straffvärdebedömning. Detta gäller särskilt när egendomens värde är något lägre eller högre än 18 basbelopp.

Sammanfattningsvis kan det noteras att även om det numera finns ett fåtal riktlinjer för hur straffvärdebedömningen ska göras råder det fortfarande brist på rättspraxis avseende dessa bedömningar. Detta medför att det inte är helt förutsebart hur rätten kommer att fastställa straffvärdet vid penningtvättsbrott. Följaktligen kan det ha en negativ inverkan på det svenska rättssystemet, då domstolen får en alltför stor frihet vid dessa bedömningar. Slutligen kan det således leda till osäkra och godtyckliga prövningar. (Less)
Abstract
The novel Act regarding penalties for money laundering offences (2014:307) has been criticized by a number of authorities. This, due to the fact that judicial precedent about penal assessment in cases of money laundering offence is scarce. Furthermore, there is a lack of evidence in the literature concerning the new legislation. Therefore, it has been interesting as a part of my essay to study how these cases are addressed and subsequently convicted by the Swedish courts.

The main purpose of this essay was to study how the court manages penalty value and based on the findings suggest how a court should assess these cases. This essay further aimed to study gross money laundering offences and the offences of the normal degree. In... (More)
The novel Act regarding penalties for money laundering offences (2014:307) has been criticized by a number of authorities. This, due to the fact that judicial precedent about penal assessment in cases of money laundering offence is scarce. Furthermore, there is a lack of evidence in the literature concerning the new legislation. Therefore, it has been interesting as a part of my essay to study how these cases are addressed and subsequently convicted by the Swedish courts.

The main purpose of this essay was to study how the court manages penalty value and based on the findings suggest how a court should assess these cases. This essay further aimed to study gross money laundering offences and the offences of the normal degree. In addition, the current case law was analyzed with the objective to evaluate if there are uniform and predictable guidelines for these assessments of penalty value. To address the purposes of this essay, 16 legal court decisions from the Supreme Court and different appeal courts were investigated.

Following a thorough investigation of the 16 above mentioned law cases it was evident that the value of the property itself is considered of great importance for the verdict ultimately sentenced by the court. According to the current guideline stated by the Supreme Court, a property value corresponding to approximately 870 000 SEK, may lead to imprisonment for one year. Furthermore, it is clear that the court generally finds this, i.e., the value of the property, as the final penalty value. Nevertheless, based on the findings in this study it was concluded that other circumstances than the value of the property itself should be given more prominence for the penalty value. These include, e.g., involvement in the offense- and the type of money laundry measures considered by the accused at the time when the crime was committed.

Ultimately, the analysis of the current case law revealed that the judicial precedent with regards to money laundering offences of the normal degree are more predictable and uniform as compared to the corresponding judicial precedent for gross money laundering offences. The reason for this is probably that there are more distinct guidelines for how the court should determine the penal value for the former cases. In fact, in the case of gross money laundering offences, it remains unclear how the court assess the penalty value. This is especially true when the value of the property is slightly lower or higher than the value previously mentioned (870 000 SEK).

In conclusion, although there are a few guidelines available for penalty value assessment, there continues to be a lack of judicial precedent regarding how the courts should determine the penal value in money laundering offences. As a consequence, this can adversely impact the Swedish legal system as the courts are given to much freedom to judge in these regards. Also, it may entail uncertain and arbitrary assessments. (Less)
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author
Banaee, Narin LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20201
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Straffrätt (en. criminal law)., Penningtvätt (en. money laundering), penningtvättsbrott (en. money laundering offences), straffvärde (en. penal value)
language
Swedish
id
9010460
date added to LUP
2020-09-17 20:40:01
date last changed
2020-09-17 20:40:01
@misc{9010460,
  abstract     = {The novel Act regarding penalties for money laundering offences (2014:307) has been criticized by a number of authorities. This, due to the fact that judicial precedent about penal assessment in cases of money laundering offence is scarce. Furthermore, there is a lack of evidence in the literature concerning the new legislation. Therefore, it has been interesting as a part of my essay to study how these cases are addressed and subsequently convicted by the Swedish courts.

The main purpose of this essay was to study how the court manages penalty value and based on the findings suggest how a court should assess these cases. This essay further aimed to study gross money laundering offences and the offences of the normal degree. In addition, the current case law was analyzed with the objective to evaluate if there are uniform and predictable guidelines for these assessments of penalty value. To address the purposes of this essay, 16 legal court decisions from the Supreme Court and different appeal courts were investigated.

Following a thorough investigation of the 16 above mentioned law cases it was evident that the value of the property itself is considered of great importance for the verdict ultimately sentenced by the court. According to the current guideline stated by the Supreme Court, a property value corresponding to approximately 870 000 SEK, may lead to imprisonment for one year. Furthermore, it is clear that the court generally finds this, i.e., the value of the property, as the final penalty value. Nevertheless, based on the findings in this study it was concluded that other circumstances than the value of the property itself should be given more prominence for the penalty value. These include, e.g., involvement in the offense- and the type of money laundry measures considered by the accused at the time when the crime was committed.

Ultimately, the analysis of the current case law revealed that the judicial precedent with regards to money laundering offences of the normal degree are more predictable and uniform as compared to the corresponding judicial precedent for gross money laundering offences. The reason for this is probably that there are more distinct guidelines for how the court should determine the penal value for the former cases. In fact, in the case of gross money laundering offences, it remains unclear how the court assess the penalty value. This is especially true when the value of the property is slightly lower or higher than the value previously mentioned (870 000 SEK).

In conclusion, although there are a few guidelines available for penalty value assessment, there continues to be a lack of judicial precedent regarding how the courts should determine the penal value in money laundering offences. As a consequence, this can adversely impact the Swedish legal system as the courts are given to much freedom to judge in these regards. Also, it may entail uncertain and arbitrary assessments.},
  author       = {Banaee, Narin},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt (en. criminal law).,Penningtvätt (en. money laundering),penningtvättsbrott (en. money laundering offences),straffvärde (en. penal value)},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Straffvärdebedömning vid penningtvättsbrott},
  year         = {2020},
}