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Burning the woods and flooding the slums : examining the socio-economic and environmental burden of wood charcoal in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Stenbæk Fløytrup, Laura Maja LU (2020) In Master Thesis Series in Environmental Studies and Sustainability Science MESM02 20201
LUCSUS (Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies)
Abstract
Wood charcoal is the main source of energy for cooking in urban Sub-Saharan Africa. It is widely known that charcoal production causes numerous environmental impacts, such as deforestation and environmental degradation. Interventions aimed at environmental improvements are common in Sub-Saharan Africa, however, there is limited focus on the trade-offs between the environmental and socio-economic implications across the entire wood charcoal supply chain. In this thesis, the socio-economic and environmental implications for people within the wood charcoal supply chain is examined through a case study of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Furthermore, the study assesses whether or not the identified socio-economic and environmental implications... (More)
Wood charcoal is the main source of energy for cooking in urban Sub-Saharan Africa. It is widely known that charcoal production causes numerous environmental impacts, such as deforestation and environmental degradation. Interventions aimed at environmental improvements are common in Sub-Saharan Africa, however, there is limited focus on the trade-offs between the environmental and socio-economic implications across the entire wood charcoal supply chain. In this thesis, the socio-economic and environmental implications for people within the wood charcoal supply chain is examined through a case study of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Furthermore, the study assesses whether or not the identified socio-economic and environmental implications contribute to a sustainable urban energy system for cooking or not. The study utilizes systems-thinking and solution-orientation to understand the wood charcoal supply chain and aid interventions. Data was gathered through focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, and observations. The data was analyzed through thematic coding guided by an energy justice framework. The main finding is that the wood charcoal supply chain has a range of environmental impacts that further exacerbate socio-economic challenges faced by people within the chain. The results show that charcoal production contribute to increased deforestation and rainfall. The consequence is found to be that wood charcoal producers and sellers struggle to secure wood charcoal availability and quality which result in increased prices for the end users. The results also indicate that producers and sellers can possibly turn to alternative livelihood activities, whilst users have no feasible alternative energy sources for cooking. Ultimately, the findings show that inter- and intragenerational equity and future sustainability is at stake because of current injustices and unsustainability of the wood charcoal supply chain. This study argues for a more just system that is robust, diversified, and equitable. To achieve such changes, stakeholder participation in decision-making needs to be established as well as alternative energy sources for cooking that meet the needs of current generations, without placing undue harm to the environment and to future generations. (Less)
Abstract (Uncoded languages)
Mkaa ndio chanzo kikuu cha nishati ya kupikia katika ukanda wa jangwa la sahara ya Africa. Inafahamika kuwa mkaa unasababisha matatizo mengi ya kimazingira kama ukataji miti na uharibifu wa mazingira. Majaribio kadhaa yamefanywa na wafanya maamuzi pamoja na watafiti kubadilisha mnyororo wa mkaa kwa kuanzisha mikakati maalumu ndani ya taasisi zilizopo kwenye mnyororo mfano, kwa kubadilisha Teknolojia na njia za ukataji miti na uzalishaji. Pamoja na hayo, mkaa na madhara yake ya kimazingira bado yanaendelea kuwepo. Mapungufu katika kuboresha mnyororo wa uzalishaji mkaa, ni kujikita katika mahusiano baina ya madhara ya kimazingira na madhara ya kijamii na kiuchumi kwa watu wote waliopo katika mnyororo wa uzalishaji badala ya kujikita kwenye... (More)
Mkaa ndio chanzo kikuu cha nishati ya kupikia katika ukanda wa jangwa la sahara ya Africa. Inafahamika kuwa mkaa unasababisha matatizo mengi ya kimazingira kama ukataji miti na uharibifu wa mazingira. Majaribio kadhaa yamefanywa na wafanya maamuzi pamoja na watafiti kubadilisha mnyororo wa mkaa kwa kuanzisha mikakati maalumu ndani ya taasisi zilizopo kwenye mnyororo mfano, kwa kubadilisha Teknolojia na njia za ukataji miti na uzalishaji. Pamoja na hayo, mkaa na madhara yake ya kimazingira bado yanaendelea kuwepo. Mapungufu katika kuboresha mnyororo wa uzalishaji mkaa, ni kujikita katika mahusiano baina ya madhara ya kimazingira na madhara ya kijamii na kiuchumi kwa watu wote waliopo katika mnyororo wa uzalishaji badala ya kujikita kwenye viwango vyake. Hivyo, nadharia hii inachunguza matokeo au hamasa ya mkaa katika jamii, uchumi na mazingira kwa kuangalia mnyororo mzima kwa eneo la utafiti ndani ya Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, na kujadili kama matokeo hayo yanamchango kwenye mfumo wa nishati endelevu ya kupikia au la. Kwa kutumia njia kama majadiliano ya kina, mahojiano madhubuti na uchunguzi wa kuona, mnyororo wa mkaa kwa Dar es Salaam unachunguzwa. Taarifa kutoka eneo la utafiti zilikusanywa na kuchambuliwa kwa kuzingatia nadharia ya haki ya Nishati ambayo inatengeneza sababu za urahisi wa upatikanaji, uwepo, ubora, unafuu wa gharama, uendelevu, na uongozi bora kama vitu muhimu kwa mfumo wa nishati. Matokeo ya utafiti huu yanaonesha kuwa uzalishaji wa mkaa unamadhara kadhaa ya kimazingira ambayo yana athiri shughuli za kijamii na uchumi kwa watu waliopo ndani ya mnyororo wa mkaa. Wakati ukataji miti na mvua vikiongezeka, upatikanaji wa mkaa unapungua, ubora unapungua na bei inapanda. Wakati wazalishaji na wauzaji wanauwezo wa kuhamia kwenye njia mbadala za uzalishaji, watumiaji hawana uwezekano wa kupata nishati mbadala madhubuti ya kupikia. Usawa wa ndani na wakimuingiliano na uhakika wa muendelezo wa mbeleni wa uzalishaji upo matatani kutokana na mwenendo wa sasa. Utafiti huu unashauri zaidi juu ya mfumo ambao ni mseto, wenye nguvu na usawa. Mabadiliko yatajumuisha uendelevu wa uzalishaji mkaa, lakini pia kuanzishwa kwa ushirika baina ya wadau na kusaidia nishati mbadala za kupikia, ambazo zainakidhi mahitaji ya watu waliopo katika mnyororo wa mkaa, bila kuleta madhara kwa mazingira na kizazi kijacho. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Stenbæk Fløytrup, Laura Maja LU
supervisor
organization
course
MESM02 20201
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Cooking fuels, Energy Justice, Supply chains, Good Governance, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sustainability Science
publication/series
Master Thesis Series in Environmental Studies and Sustainability Science
report number
2020:015
language
English
id
9011875
date added to LUP
2020-06-08 13:56:23
date last changed
2020-06-08 13:56:23
@misc{9011875,
  abstract     = {Wood charcoal is the main source of energy for cooking in urban Sub-Saharan Africa. It is widely known that charcoal production causes numerous environmental impacts, such as deforestation and environmental degradation. Interventions aimed at environmental improvements are common in Sub-Saharan Africa, however, there is limited focus on the trade-offs between the environmental and socio-economic implications across the entire wood charcoal supply chain. In this thesis, the socio-economic and environmental implications for people within the wood charcoal supply chain is examined through a case study of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Furthermore, the study assesses whether or not the identified socio-economic and environmental implications contribute to a sustainable urban energy system for cooking or not. The study utilizes systems-thinking and solution-orientation to understand the wood charcoal supply chain and aid interventions. Data was gathered through focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, and observations. The data was analyzed through thematic coding guided by an energy justice framework. The main finding is that the wood charcoal supply chain has a range of environmental impacts that further exacerbate socio-economic challenges faced by people within the chain. The results show that charcoal production contribute to increased deforestation and rainfall. The consequence is found to be that wood charcoal producers and sellers struggle to secure wood charcoal availability and quality which result in increased prices for the end users. The results also indicate that producers and sellers can possibly turn to alternative livelihood activities, whilst users have no feasible alternative energy sources for cooking. Ultimately, the findings show that inter- and intragenerational equity and future sustainability is at stake because of current injustices and unsustainability of the wood charcoal supply chain. This study argues for a more just system that is robust, diversified, and equitable. To achieve such changes, stakeholder participation in decision-making needs to be established as well as alternative energy sources for cooking that meet the needs of current generations, without placing undue harm to the environment and to future generations.},
  author       = {Stenbæk Fløytrup, Laura Maja},
  keyword      = {Cooking fuels,Energy Justice,Supply chains,Good Governance,Sub-Saharan Africa,Sustainability Science},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Master Thesis Series in Environmental Studies and Sustainability Science},
  title        = {Burning the woods and flooding the slums : examining the socio-economic and environmental burden of wood charcoal in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania},
  year         = {2020},
}