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Assessing Active Mobility Pathways: Policy mixes to address the triple threat of physical inactivity, air pollution, and climate change in Oxford

Gravett, Natalie LU (2020) IMEM01 20201
The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics
Abstract
The combined threat of poor air quality, physical inactivity, and climate change is a major sustainability challenge for the transport sector. Numerous policy interventions may address this, yet technological improvement measures, including the isolated introduction of Emissions Zones, are currently over-emphasised. There is a lack of policy mix evaluations in the literature, particularly those including interventions to promote walking and cycling. Studies examining active mobility policy mixes typically stop at the output (i.e. increased number of active kilometres travelled), without following the causal chain to the monetised outcomes (i.e. economic value of prevented premature deaths), compounding this research gap. Considering these... (More)
The combined threat of poor air quality, physical inactivity, and climate change is a major sustainability challenge for the transport sector. Numerous policy interventions may address this, yet technological improvement measures, including the isolated introduction of Emissions Zones, are currently over-emphasised. There is a lack of policy mix evaluations in the literature, particularly those including interventions to promote walking and cycling. Studies examining active mobility policy mixes typically stop at the output (i.e. increased number of active kilometres travelled), without following the causal chain to the monetised outcomes (i.e. economic value of prevented premature deaths), compounding this research gap. Considering these deficiencies, this thesis investigates and monetises the potential of combinations of policies promoting a mode shift to walking and cycling. Using the city of Oxford as a case study, this thesis employs a mixed-method, largely quantitative approach, to develop and assess the impacts of policies to complement the proposed Oxford Zero Emission Zone. Using the WHO Health Economic Assessment Tool, five policy packages, and 24 different scenarios are analysed. Modelling reveals that the policy mix with maximum possible benefits includes a Workplace Parking Levy, a city-wide cycle network, and training and education. Considering the health impacts from increased physical activity and avoided CO2 emissions, benefits are estimated in the range of: 57 (2030) to 230 (2050) prevented premature deaths; 11 million tonnes (2030) to 29 million tonnes (2050) avoided CO2e emissions; resulting in a total benefit of €3 billion (2030) to €14 billion (2050). These impacts remain high and positive when key input parameters are modified in a sensitivity analysis. Overall, whilst policies such as Emissions Zones promoting electric vehicles can to some extent reduce carbon emissions and air pollutants per vehicle, investing in active mobility represents a feasible, multi-faceted pathway to a low-carbon Oxford, with substantial health co-benefits. A number of policy recommendations are provided for the design and implementation of the high-performing policies. (Less)
Popular Abstract
The combined threat of poor air quality, physical inactivity, and climate change is a major sustainability challenge for the transport sector. Numerous policy interventions may address this, yet technological improvement measures, including the isolated introduction of Emissions Zones, are currently over-emphasised. There is a lack of policy mix evaluations in the literature, particularly those including interventions to promote walking and cycling. Studies examining active mobility policy mixes typically stop at the output (i.e. increased number of active kilometres travelled), without following the causal chain to the monetised outcomes (i.e. economic value of prevented premature deaths), compounding this research gap. Considering these... (More)
The combined threat of poor air quality, physical inactivity, and climate change is a major sustainability challenge for the transport sector. Numerous policy interventions may address this, yet technological improvement measures, including the isolated introduction of Emissions Zones, are currently over-emphasised. There is a lack of policy mix evaluations in the literature, particularly those including interventions to promote walking and cycling. Studies examining active mobility policy mixes typically stop at the output (i.e. increased number of active kilometres travelled), without following the causal chain to the monetised outcomes (i.e. economic value of prevented premature deaths), compounding this research gap. Considering these deficiencies, this thesis investigates and monetises the potential of combinations of policies promoting a mode shift to walking and cycling. Using the city of Oxford as a case study, this thesis employs a mixed-method, largely quantitative approach, to develop and assess the impacts of policies to complement the proposed Oxford Zero Emission Zone. Using the WHO Health Economic Assessment Tool, five policy packages, and 24 different scenarios are analysed. Modelling reveals that the policy mix with maximum possible benefits includes a Workplace Parking Levy, a city-wide cycle network, and training and education. Considering the health impacts from increased physical activity and avoided CO2 emissions, benefits are estimated in the range of: 57 (2030) to 230 (2050) prevented premature deaths; 11 million tonnes (2030) to 29 million tonnes (2050) avoided CO2e emissions; resulting in a total benefit of €3 billion (2030) to €14 billion (2050). These impacts remain high and positive when key input parameters are modified in a sensitivity analysis. Overall, whilst policies such as Emissions Zones promoting electric vehicles can to some extent reduce carbon emissions and air pollutants per vehicle, investing in active mobility represents a feasible, multi-faceted pathway to a low-carbon Oxford, with substantial health co-benefits. A number of policy recommendations are provided for the design and implementation of the high-performing policies. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Gravett, Natalie LU
supervisor
organization
course
IMEM01 20201
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Zero Emissions Zone, Physical Activity, Active Mobility, Sustainable Transportation, Policy Evaluation' Policy Mixes, Health Economic Assessment Tool
report number
2020:05
ISSN
1401-9191
language
English
id
9017647
date added to LUP
2020-06-15 09:27:07
date last changed
2020-06-15 09:27:07
@misc{9017647,
  abstract     = {The combined threat of poor air quality, physical inactivity, and climate change is a major sustainability challenge for the transport sector. Numerous policy interventions may address this, yet technological improvement measures, including the isolated introduction of Emissions Zones, are currently over-emphasised. There is a lack of policy mix evaluations in the literature, particularly those including interventions to promote walking and cycling. Studies examining active mobility policy mixes typically stop at the output (i.e. increased number of active kilometres travelled), without following the causal chain to the monetised outcomes (i.e. economic value of prevented premature deaths), compounding this research gap. Considering these deficiencies, this thesis investigates and monetises the potential of combinations of policies promoting a mode shift to walking and cycling. Using the city of Oxford as a case study, this thesis employs a mixed-method, largely quantitative approach, to develop and assess the impacts of policies to complement the proposed Oxford Zero Emission Zone. Using the WHO Health Economic Assessment Tool, five policy packages, and 24 different scenarios are analysed. Modelling reveals that the policy mix with maximum possible benefits includes a Workplace Parking Levy, a city-wide cycle network, and training and education. Considering the health impacts from increased physical activity and avoided CO2 emissions, benefits are estimated in the range of: 57 (2030) to 230 (2050) prevented premature deaths; 11 million tonnes (2030) to 29 million tonnes (2050) avoided CO2e emissions; resulting in a total benefit of €3 billion (2030) to €14 billion (2050). These impacts remain high and positive when key input parameters are modified in a sensitivity analysis. Overall, whilst policies such as Emissions Zones promoting electric vehicles can to some extent reduce carbon emissions and air pollutants per vehicle, investing in active mobility represents a feasible, multi-faceted pathway to a low-carbon Oxford, with substantial health co-benefits. A number of policy recommendations are provided for the design and implementation of the high-performing policies.},
  author       = {Gravett, Natalie},
  issn         = {1401-9191},
  keyword      = {Zero Emissions Zone,Physical Activity,Active Mobility,Sustainable Transportation,Policy Evaluation' Policy Mixes,Health Economic Assessment Tool},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Assessing Active Mobility Pathways: Policy mixes to address the triple threat of physical inactivity, air pollution, and climate change in Oxford},
  year         = {2020},
}