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Bevisvärdering av indiciebevisning - En kvalitativ rättsfallsanalys

Fabri, Filip LU (2020) JURM02 20202
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
In December 2019, the police discovered a thermos bomb in an underground garage in Malmö. One of the suspects had previously been convicted of crimes similar to this and had connections to the Hells Angels motorcycle club. His DNA also matched DNA found on the cap of the thermos containing the explosive charge. The district court used his criminal record and affiliation with Hells Angels as evidence for his guilt in the new case regarding the thermos bomb. In 2020 the Court of Appeal found the man innocent. Among other things, his previous convictions and his background was valued in a different way. I could not comprehend how the district court and the Court of Appeal came to such different conclusions when their evaluation was based on... (More)
In December 2019, the police discovered a thermos bomb in an underground garage in Malmö. One of the suspects had previously been convicted of crimes similar to this and had connections to the Hells Angels motorcycle club. His DNA also matched DNA found on the cap of the thermos containing the explosive charge. The district court used his criminal record and affiliation with Hells Angels as evidence for his guilt in the new case regarding the thermos bomb. In 2020 the Court of Appeal found the man innocent. Among other things, his previous convictions and his background was valued in a different way. I could not comprehend how the district court and the Court of Appeal came to such different conclusions when their evaluation was based on the same circumstantial evidence. I therefore decided to write this thesis on the subject of evidence evaluation. The purpose of the thesis is to uncover how the courts value circumstantial evidence and whether this evaluation is consistent with basic rules and principles governing evidence evaluation in Sweden.

The definition of circumstantial evidence is clearly central for the purpose of the thesis. The definition has however proven to be disparate. In doctrine various terms with different meanings are being used and in courts the ambiguous definition of circumstantial evidence created by doctrine is reflected. To investigate the essay's issues, it has thus been central to examine the concept formation and decide which term the essay should adhere to. Furthermore, it has been of great importance to decide the definition of this term. The conclusion is that the term “indiciebevisning” is the most used term and it was therefore the easiest one to use when searching for cases to study. Regarding the definition of this term, Dahlman's classification with traces of the criminal act and conditions for the criminal act was found to be the most suitable definition.

The examination of the courts' evidence evaluation was carried out through a qualitative case study. The study consists of five selected cases where circumstantial evidence has been the subject of judicial review. The conclusion of the study is that the courts are heavily affected by the vague concept formation and definition of circumstantial evidence. This mostly affects the structure, and their evidence evaluation is in most cases well thought through. Certain elements can be questioned, including but not limited to the fact that some instances have chosen to dismiss evidence completely if it had low evidential value. This is highly unacceptable as it risks affecting the outcome of the case by underestimating collaborative evidence.

Moreover, the evidence evaluation is largely compatible with the basic rules and principles that govern the law of evidence in Sweden. It can however be stated that it is difficult to interpret the evidence as it is rare that reasoning about the power of individual evidence, probability of origin and alternative hypotheses are explained in the reasons for the verdict. These inadequates leave room for reader interpretation and ultimately result in the accuracy of the judgments being questioned. As an example, questions can be raised in regard to the valuation of the combined power of evidence in the Mail murder. How the court found the evidence not to read the standard of proof is hard to comprehend. However, much of the evidence was not to be considered circumstantial evidence and was therefore not relevant to the thesis.
The Swedish law of evidence needs a clear definition on circumstantial evidence. Forcing the courts to stop using the term is not possibility and would likely be contrary to the principle of free evidence evaluation. Choosing to determine the definition of circumstantial evidence by law would also be incompatible with basic principles governing the law of evidence. The most suitable solution is therefore a precedent from the Supreme Court stating a clear definition of circumstantial evidence. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
I december 2019 hittade polisen en termosbomb i ett underjordiskt garage i Malmö. En av personerna som misstänktes för brottet hade tidigare dömts för liknande typer av brottslighet och hade en koppling till Hells Angels. Hans DNA hade även återfunnits på locket till den termos som sprängladdningen var placerad i. Tingsrätten använde hans tidigare brottslighet och bakgrund som bevis för hans skuld avseende den nya brottsligheten. Under 2020 avgjorde hovrätten målet och fann mannen oskyldig. Bland annat hade den tidigare brottsligheten och hans bakgrund värderats annorlunda. Syftet med uppsatsen är att ta reda på hur domstolarna värderar denna typ av bevis, indiciebevisning, och om värderingen är förenlig med de grundläggande utgångspunkter... (More)
I december 2019 hittade polisen en termosbomb i ett underjordiskt garage i Malmö. En av personerna som misstänktes för brottet hade tidigare dömts för liknande typer av brottslighet och hade en koppling till Hells Angels. Hans DNA hade även återfunnits på locket till den termos som sprängladdningen var placerad i. Tingsrätten använde hans tidigare brottslighet och bakgrund som bevis för hans skuld avseende den nya brottsligheten. Under 2020 avgjorde hovrätten målet och fann mannen oskyldig. Bland annat hade den tidigare brottsligheten och hans bakgrund värderats annorlunda. Syftet med uppsatsen är att ta reda på hur domstolarna värderar denna typ av bevis, indiciebevisning, och om värderingen är förenlig med de grundläggande utgångspunkter och principer som råder för bevisprövning i Sverige.

För uppsatsen är det därav centralt att utreda vad ett indicium är. Begreppsbestämningen har visat sig vara spretig. I doktrin används olika termer med olika innebörd och i praxis avspeglas den otydliga bild som skapats i doktrin. För att kunna undersöka uppsatsens frågeställningar har det därmed varit centralt att undersöka begreppsbildningen och avgöra vilken term uppsatsen ska ansluta sig till. Vidare var det viktigt att slå fast innebörden av denna term. Slutsatsen blev termen indiciebevisning var lättast att använda vid sökandet av rättsfall att analysera eftersom termen återkommande används i domstolarna. Vidare används Dahlmans uppeldning mellan spår av den brottsliga gärningen och betingelser för den brottsliga gärningen som definition för denna term.

Undersökningen av domstolarnas bevisvärdering har utförts genom en kvalitativ rättsfalsstudie. I rättsfallsstudien har fem utvalda rättsfall analyserats där indiciebevisning förekommer. Slutsatsen av studien är att domstolarna påverkas av den spretiga begreppsbildningen men i övrigt gör en god bevisvärdering. Vissa moment kan ifrågasättas, däribland att vissa instanser valt att avfärda bevisningen helt om den har svag beviskraft. Det är direkt olämpligt då det riskerar påverka utgången i målet genom underskattning av samverkande bevisning.

Det kan också konstateras att domstolarnas bevisvärdering i mångt och mycket är varit förenlig med de grundläggande utgångspunkter och principer som råder i svensk bevisrätt. Det kan dock konstateras att det är svårt att utläsa hur bevisvärderingen gått till i och med att det sällan framgår i hur domstolen resonerat kring beviskraft, ursprungssannolikhet och alternativhypoteser. Dessa knapphändiga domskäl tror jag öppnar upp för tolkningsmöjligheter och i slutändan resulterar i att domarnas materiella riktighet kan ifrågasättas. I bland annat Malinmordet kan det verkligen ifrågasättas hur den sammanvägda bevisningen inte ansågs nå upp till beviskravet. Mycket av bevisningen var emellertid inte av indiciekaraktär och var därav inte relevant för uppsatsen.

Den svenska bevisrätten är till synes i stort behov av en tydlig terminologi och en tydlig definition av begreppet indicium. Det förefaller svårt att förmå domstolarna att sluta använda begreppet. Att i lag slå fast hur bevistyper ska kategoriseras och definieras skulle troligen strida mot de grundläggande principer som finns inom bevisrätten. Den mest lämpliga lösningen är därför ett prejudikat från HD som tydligt stadgar hur termen indicium ska definieras och användas. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Fabri, Filip LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Evidence evaluation of circumstantial evidence - A qualitative case study
course
JURM02 20202
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Bevisvärdering, indicier, indicium, indiciebevisning
language
Swedish
id
9034651
date added to LUP
2021-01-25 12:20:55
date last changed
2021-01-25 12:20:55
@misc{9034651,
  abstract     = {In December 2019, the police discovered a thermos bomb in an underground garage in Malmö. One of the suspects had previously been convicted of crimes similar to this and had connections to the Hells Angels motorcycle club. His DNA also matched DNA found on the cap of the thermos containing the explosive charge. The district court used his criminal record and affiliation with Hells Angels as evidence for his guilt in the new case regarding the thermos bomb. In 2020 the Court of Appeal found the man innocent. Among other things, his previous convictions and his background was valued in a different way. I could not comprehend how the district court and the Court of Appeal came to such different conclusions when their evaluation was based on the same circumstantial evidence. I therefore decided to write this thesis on the subject of evidence evaluation. The purpose of the thesis is to uncover how the courts value circumstantial evidence and whether this evaluation is consistent with basic rules and principles governing evidence evaluation in Sweden.

The definition of circumstantial evidence is clearly central for the purpose of the thesis. The definition has however proven to be disparate. In doctrine various terms with different meanings are being used and in courts the ambiguous definition of circumstantial evidence created by doctrine is reflected. To investigate the essay's issues, it has thus been central to examine the concept formation and decide which term the essay should adhere to. Furthermore, it has been of great importance to decide the definition of this term. The conclusion is that the term “indiciebevisning” is the most used term and it was therefore the easiest one to use when searching for cases to study. Regarding the definition of this term, Dahlman's classification with traces of the criminal act and conditions for the criminal act was found to be the most suitable definition.

The examination of the courts' evidence evaluation was carried out through a qualitative case study. The study consists of five selected cases where circumstantial evidence has been the subject of judicial review. The conclusion of the study is that the courts are heavily affected by the vague concept formation and definition of circumstantial evidence. This mostly affects the structure, and their evidence evaluation is in most cases well thought through. Certain elements can be questioned, including but not limited to the fact that some instances have chosen to dismiss evidence completely if it had low evidential value. This is highly unacceptable as it risks affecting the outcome of the case by underestimating collaborative evidence.

Moreover, the evidence evaluation is largely compatible with the basic rules and principles that govern the law of evidence in Sweden. It can however be stated that it is difficult to interpret the evidence as it is rare that reasoning about the power of individual evidence, probability of origin and alternative hypotheses are explained in the reasons for the verdict. These inadequates leave room for reader interpretation and ultimately result in the accuracy of the judgments being questioned. As an example, questions can be raised in regard to the valuation of the combined power of evidence in the Mail murder. How the court found the evidence not to read the standard of proof is hard to comprehend. However, much of the evidence was not to be considered circumstantial evidence and was therefore not relevant to the thesis.
The Swedish law of evidence needs a clear definition on circumstantial evidence. Forcing the courts to stop using the term is not possibility and would likely be contrary to the principle of free evidence evaluation. Choosing to determine the definition of circumstantial evidence by law would also be incompatible with basic principles governing the law of evidence. The most suitable solution is therefore a precedent from the Supreme Court stating a clear definition of circumstantial evidence.},
  author       = {Fabri, Filip},
  keyword      = {Bevisvärdering,indicier,indicium,indiciebevisning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Bevisvärdering av indiciebevisning - En kvalitativ rättsfallsanalys},
  year         = {2020},
}