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3D Printing Composites from Raw Materials

Rundbäck Martinsson, Oscar LU (2021) MMKM05 20211
Product Development
Abstract
For the last decades, the subject of Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, has been rapidly developing in both the industrial and recreational fields. As new applications are discovered, materials and methods have to be researched and developed at the same pace to not stunt the creativity that 3D-printing brings out.
The material most commonly used in 3D-printers are in a filament form, which is created in large industry extruders.
This creates a barrier for users who want to create new types of filament with different material compositions or colors who at the moment have to rely on large scale producers, which greatly increases the cost and time of any project.
The extrusion process for creating composite materials is... (More)
For the last decades, the subject of Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, has been rapidly developing in both the industrial and recreational fields. As new applications are discovered, materials and methods have to be researched and developed at the same pace to not stunt the creativity that 3D-printing brings out.
The material most commonly used in 3D-printers are in a filament form, which is created in large industry extruders.
This creates a barrier for users who want to create new types of filament with different material compositions or colors who at the moment have to rely on large scale producers, which greatly increases the cost and time of any project.
The extrusion process for creating composite materials is at the moment of writing complicated and expensive, requiring a twin-screw extruder or a very complicated extrusion screw design.

For this master thesis, the theoretical ideas and practicalities surrounding extruder limitations are explored, with a focus on the compounding of materials directly in the extrusion process. This is achieved by designing and constructing a 3D-printer which can extrude and print directly from the raw material which filaments are made from. Benchmarking of the compounding for the most common additive types; fibres, metal powders and a ceramic, is performed to confirm the results.

The most important conclusion drawn from this master thesis is that scaling down the size and volumetric output of an extruder positively affects the compounding of a composite. This change is comparable to large scale producers in the ability to create a well homogenized composite which instantly can be used for a large variety of uses. Feasibility was proven using mechanical testing as well as scanning electron microscopy on several composites. This is a very positive result, opening the path to a more accessible research field for both researchers and recreational producers. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Under de senaste decennierna har friformsframställning, även benämt som 3D-utskrift, utvecklats snabbt inom både industri- och hobbyområdet. När nya applikationer upptäcks måste både material och metoder undersökas och utvecklas i samma takt för att inte hämma den kreativitet som 3D-utskrift framkallar.
Materialet som vanligast används i 3D-skrivare är i filamentform, vilket produceras i storskaliga extruderare.
Detta skapar en barriär för användare som vill skapa nya typer av filament med olika materialkompositioner eller färger. Dessa måste för tillfället lita på storskaliga producenter, vilket avsevärt ökar kostnaden och tiden för alla projekt.
Extrusionsprocessen för att skapa kompositmaterial är vid skrivande punkt komplicerad och... (More)
Under de senaste decennierna har friformsframställning, även benämt som 3D-utskrift, utvecklats snabbt inom både industri- och hobbyområdet. När nya applikationer upptäcks måste både material och metoder undersökas och utvecklas i samma takt för att inte hämma den kreativitet som 3D-utskrift framkallar.
Materialet som vanligast används i 3D-skrivare är i filamentform, vilket produceras i storskaliga extruderare.
Detta skapar en barriär för användare som vill skapa nya typer av filament med olika materialkompositioner eller färger. Dessa måste för tillfället lita på storskaliga producenter, vilket avsevärt ökar kostnaden och tiden för alla projekt.
Extrusionsprocessen för att skapa kompositmaterial är vid skrivande punkt komplicerad och dyr, och kräver en tvillingskruvextruderare, en mycket komplicerad skruvdesign eller avancerade extrudersingsprocesser.

I detta examensarbete undersöks de teoretiska idéerna och praktiska aspekterna kring extruderingsbegränsningar, med fokus på homogenisering av material direkt i extruderingsprocessen. Detta uppnås genom att formge och konstruera en 3D-skrivare som kan extrudera och skriva ut direkt från den råvara som filamenten är tillverkade av. Mätning av de vanligaste tillsatstyperna; fibrer, metallpulver och keramik, genomförs.

Den viktigaste slutsatsen som dras från detta examensarbete är att genom att skala ner storleken och den volymetriska effekten hos en extruderare skapas det bättre möjligheter att uppnå en homogeniserad komposit. Denna komposit är jämförbar med storskaliga producenter i förmågan att producera en välblandad komposit som direkt kan användas inom flertalet användningsområden. Resultaten bekräftades med hjälp av flertalet mekaniska- samt elektronmikroskoptester på flertalet kompositer. Detta är ett mycket positivt resultat som öppnar vägen för ett mer tillgängligt forskningsfält för både forskare och hobbyproducenter. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Rundbäck Martinsson, Oscar LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
On the Compounding of Additives in Scaled-Down Extruders
course
MMKM05 20211
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Additive manufacturing, Extrusion, Compounding, 3D-printing
language
English
id
9053163
date added to LUP
2021-06-14 09:47:04
date last changed
2021-06-14 09:47:05
@misc{9053163,
  abstract     = {{For the last decades, the subject of Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, has been rapidly developing in both the industrial and recreational fields. As new applications are discovered, materials and methods have to be researched and developed at the same pace to not stunt the creativity that 3D-printing brings out.
The material most commonly used in 3D-printers are in a filament form, which is created in large industry extruders. 
This creates a barrier for users who want to create new types of filament with different material compositions or colors who at the moment have to rely on large scale producers, which greatly increases the cost and time of any project. 
The extrusion process for creating composite materials is at the moment of writing complicated and expensive, requiring a twin-screw extruder or a very complicated extrusion screw design.

For this master thesis, the theoretical ideas and practicalities surrounding extruder limitations are explored, with a focus on the compounding of materials directly in the extrusion process. This is achieved by designing and constructing a 3D-printer which can extrude and print directly from the raw material which filaments are made from. Benchmarking of the compounding for the most common additive types; fibres, metal powders and a ceramic, is performed to confirm the results.

The most important conclusion drawn from this master thesis is that scaling down the size and volumetric output of an extruder positively affects the compounding of a composite. This change is comparable to large scale producers in the ability to create a well homogenized composite which instantly can be used for a large variety of uses. Feasibility was proven using mechanical testing as well as scanning electron microscopy on several composites. This is a very positive result, opening the path to a more accessible research field for both researchers and recreational producers.}},
  author       = {{Rundbäck Martinsson, Oscar}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  note         = {{Student Paper}},
  title        = {{3D Printing Composites from Raw Materials}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}