Advanced

Optimum electrolyte composition of a dialysis solution.

Rippe, Bengt LU and Venturoli, Daniele LU (2008) In Peritoneal Dialysis International 28 Suppl 3. p.131-136
Abstract
In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) for end-stage renal failure, the optimum electrolyte composition of a dialysis solution is that which best serves the homeostatic needs of the body. Comparing the transperitoneal removal of electrolytes by conventional PD solutions (CPDSs) with that by normal kidneys, it is evident that peritoneal removal is in the lower range of what can be considered "normal." Given the electrolyte composition of CPDSs and a total dwell volume of 4 exchanges of 2 L each, approximately 90 mmol NaCl, 40 mmol K(+), 10 - 15 mmol HPO(4)(-) and 1 - 2 mmol Ca(2+) can be removed daily [plus 1 L ultrafiltration (UF)]. Na(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) are supplied in CPDSs in concentrations close to their plasma... (More)
In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) for end-stage renal failure, the optimum electrolyte composition of a dialysis solution is that which best serves the homeostatic needs of the body. Comparing the transperitoneal removal of electrolytes by conventional PD solutions (CPDSs) with that by normal kidneys, it is evident that peritoneal removal is in the lower range of what can be considered "normal." Given the electrolyte composition of CPDSs and a total dwell volume of 4 exchanges of 2 L each, approximately 90 mmol NaCl, 40 mmol K(+), 10 - 15 mmol HPO(4)(-) and 1 - 2 mmol Ca(2+) can be removed daily [plus 1 L ultrafiltration (UF)]. Na(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) are supplied in CPDSs in concentrations close to their plasma concentrations, which makes their removal almost entirely dependent on UF. In UF failure (UFF), plasma levels of the foregoing ions will tend to rise, producing a higher diffusion gradient to compensate for their defective UF removal. Peritoneal removal of HCO(3)(-), HPO(4)(-), and K(+) are usually quite efficient because of the zero CPDS concentrations of these ions. Approximately 150 mmol HCO(3)(-) is lost daily with CPDSs, compensated for by the addition of 30 - 40 mmol/L lactate, or, with the use of multi-compartment bags, bicarbonate instead. However, a mixture of bicarbonate and lactate should be preferred as a buffer, to avoid intracellular acidosis from high levels of pCO(2) in the dialysis fluid. For patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) without UFF and with some residual renal function, PD fluid concentrations of Na(+) 130 - 133 mmol/L, Ca(2+) 1.25 - 1.35 mmol/L, and Mg(2+) 0.25 - 0.3 mmol/L seem appropriate. With reduced UF after a few years of PD, the removal of fluid and electrolytes often becomes deficient. Dietary salt restriction can be prescribed, but it is hard to implement. The use of low-Na(+) solution (LNa) is a potential alternative. The reduction in osmolality resulting from Na(+) removal in LNa should preferably be compensated by the addition of glucose (G). In a recent study, a regimen including 1 LNa exchange daily (Na(+) 115 mmol/L) in a G-compensated solution showed very promising effects on blood pressure and fluid status. However, large-scale randomized controlled studies have to be performed to definitively settle the role of LNa in volume-overloaded patients. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Peritoneal Dialysis International
volume
28 Suppl 3
pages
131 - 136
publisher
Multimed Inc.
external identifiers
  • WOS:000257889800025
  • PMID:18552243
  • Scopus:48749088418
ISSN
1718-4304
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
4455b722-94cf-4754-990c-79de6f9fd195 (old id 1242896)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18552243?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2008-10-07 14:47:35
date last changed
2016-10-13 04:33:27
@misc{4455b722-94cf-4754-990c-79de6f9fd195,
  abstract     = {In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) for end-stage renal failure, the optimum electrolyte composition of a dialysis solution is that which best serves the homeostatic needs of the body. Comparing the transperitoneal removal of electrolytes by conventional PD solutions (CPDSs) with that by normal kidneys, it is evident that peritoneal removal is in the lower range of what can be considered "normal." Given the electrolyte composition of CPDSs and a total dwell volume of 4 exchanges of 2 L each, approximately 90 mmol NaCl, 40 mmol K(+), 10 - 15 mmol HPO(4)(-) and 1 - 2 mmol Ca(2+) can be removed daily [plus 1 L ultrafiltration (UF)]. Na(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) are supplied in CPDSs in concentrations close to their plasma concentrations, which makes their removal almost entirely dependent on UF. In UF failure (UFF), plasma levels of the foregoing ions will tend to rise, producing a higher diffusion gradient to compensate for their defective UF removal. Peritoneal removal of HCO(3)(-), HPO(4)(-), and K(+) are usually quite efficient because of the zero CPDS concentrations of these ions. Approximately 150 mmol HCO(3)(-) is lost daily with CPDSs, compensated for by the addition of 30 - 40 mmol/L lactate, or, with the use of multi-compartment bags, bicarbonate instead. However, a mixture of bicarbonate and lactate should be preferred as a buffer, to avoid intracellular acidosis from high levels of pCO(2) in the dialysis fluid. For patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) without UFF and with some residual renal function, PD fluid concentrations of Na(+) 130 - 133 mmol/L, Ca(2+) 1.25 - 1.35 mmol/L, and Mg(2+) 0.25 - 0.3 mmol/L seem appropriate. With reduced UF after a few years of PD, the removal of fluid and electrolytes often becomes deficient. Dietary salt restriction can be prescribed, but it is hard to implement. The use of low-Na(+) solution (LNa) is a potential alternative. The reduction in osmolality resulting from Na(+) removal in LNa should preferably be compensated by the addition of glucose (G). In a recent study, a regimen including 1 LNa exchange daily (Na(+) 115 mmol/L) in a G-compensated solution showed very promising effects on blood pressure and fluid status. However, large-scale randomized controlled studies have to be performed to definitively settle the role of LNa in volume-overloaded patients.},
  author       = {Rippe, Bengt and Venturoli, Daniele},
  issn         = {1718-4304},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {131--136},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x95822c0)},
  series       = {Peritoneal Dialysis International},
  title        = {Optimum electrolyte composition of a dialysis solution.},
  volume       = {28 Suppl 3},
  year         = {2008},
}