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Characterization and source term assessments of radioactive particles from Marshall Islands using non-destructive analytical techniques

Jernström, Jussi; Eriksson, Mats; R, Simon; Gabriele, Tamborini; Olivier, Bildstein; Ramon, Carlos-Marquez; S.R., Kehl; Hamilton, Terry; Ranebo, Ylva LU and Betti, Maria (2006) In Spectrochimica Acta Part B 61. p.971-979
Abstract
Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were... (More)
Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were identified as nuclear fuel fragments of exploded weapon components. As containing plutonium with low 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, less than 0.065, which corresponds to weapons-grade plutonium or a detonation with low fission yield, the particles were identified to originate from the safety test and low-yield tests conducted in the history of Runit Island. The Si/O-rich particles contained traces of 137Cs (239 + 240Pu/137Cs activity ratio higher than 2500), which indicated that a minor fission process occurred during the explosion. The average 241Am/239Pu atomic ratio in the six particles was 3.7×10−3 ±0.2×10−3 (February 2006), which indicated that plutonium in the different particles had similar age. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Synchrotron radiation, SIMS, SEM-EDX-WDX, Source term, Marshall Islands, Radioactive environmental particle
in
Spectrochimica Acta Part B
volume
61
pages
971 - 979
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • Other:doi:10.1016/j.sab.2006.09.002
  • Scopus:33750358344
DOI
10.1016/j.sab.2006.09.002
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
3a6eae9c-ad4a-4ad6-8c04-2c462efd299e (old id 1501314)
alternative location
http://e-reports-ext.llnl.gov/pdf/321193.pdf
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/234112850_Published/file/32bfe50f4763f6001e.pdf
date added to LUP
2013-08-06 15:15:45
date last changed
2016-10-13 04:37:55
@misc{3a6eae9c-ad4a-4ad6-8c04-2c462efd299e,
  abstract     = {Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were identified as nuclear fuel fragments of exploded weapon components. As containing plutonium with low 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, less than 0.065, which corresponds to weapons-grade plutonium or a detonation with low fission yield, the particles were identified to originate from the safety test and low-yield tests conducted in the history of Runit Island. The Si/O-rich particles contained traces of 137Cs (239 + 240Pu/137Cs activity ratio higher than 2500), which indicated that a minor fission process occurred during the explosion. The average 241Am/239Pu atomic ratio in the six particles was 3.7×10−3 ±0.2×10−3 (February 2006), which indicated that plutonium in the different particles had similar age.},
  author       = {Jernström, Jussi and Eriksson, Mats and R, Simon and Gabriele, Tamborini and Olivier, Bildstein and Ramon, Carlos-Marquez and S.R., Kehl and Hamilton, Terry and Ranebo, Ylva and Betti, Maria},
  keyword      = {Synchrotron radiation,SIMS,SEM-EDX-WDX,Source term,Marshall Islands,Radioactive environmental particle},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {971--979},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x6f3b4f0)},
  series       = {Spectrochimica Acta Part B},
  title        = {Characterization and source term assessments of radioactive particles from Marshall Islands using non-destructive analytical techniques},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2006.09.002},
  volume       = {61},
  year         = {2006},
}