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Mixing Time for the Dead Sea Based on Water and Salt Mass Balances

Bashitialshaaer, Raed LU ; Persson, Kenneth M LU and Larson, Magnus LU (2010) In Vatten: tidskrift för vattenvård /Journal of Water Management and research 66(1). p.55-66
Abstract
Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled. Precipitation, evaporation, river discharges,

ground water flows, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were

included

in the models. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled using a single-layer (well-mixed) a

two-layer (stratified) system.

Using the single-layer approach the water level was predicted to change from 411 m below mean sea level

(bmsl) (in 1997) to 391 m and 479 m bmsl (in 2097) based on water mass balances including and excluding

brine discharge, respectively, and to reach 402 m and 444 m for the two cases based on a salt mass balance.

In the two-layer... (More)
Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled. Precipitation, evaporation, river discharges,

ground water flows, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were

included

in the models. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled using a single-layer (well-mixed) a

two-layer (stratified) system.

Using the single-layer approach the water level was predicted to change from 411 m below mean sea level

(bmsl) (in 1997) to 391 m and 479 m bmsl (in 2097) based on water mass balances including and excluding

brine discharge, respectively, and to reach 402 m and 444 m for the two cases based on a salt mass balance.

In the two-layer approach the water level after 100 years was predicted to change from 411 m bmsl (1997)

to 397 m and 488 m for a water mass balance including and excluding brine discharge, respectively, and to

reach 387 m and 425 m for the two cases using a salt mass balance.

The water mixing time using the single-layer description increased from 58 to 116 years when excluding

brine discharge. Using the two-layer approach the exchange or mixing time increased in both layers, when

adding

brine discharge to the system, from 1.2 to 1.7 years and 11 to 15.3 years in the upper and lower layers,

respectively. Good agreement was found between the models and historical data. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to specialist publication or newspaper
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Mixing time, Salinity, Single-Layer and Two-Layer system, Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal (RSDSC), Dead Sea water level, Water-Salt balance, Historical comparison.
categories
Popular Science
in
Vatten: tidskrift för vattenvård /Journal of Water Management and research
volume
66
issue
1
pages
12 pages
ISSN
0042-2886
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
0573c519-3c42-41b6-9b5d-ff3b2bd6924a (old id 1692382)
alternative location
http://www.tidskriftenvatten.se/download.asp?type=article&ID=4198
date added to LUP
2010-10-14 14:16:40
date last changed
2016-11-24 14:26:37
@misc{0573c519-3c42-41b6-9b5d-ff3b2bd6924a,
  abstract     = {Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled. Precipitation, evaporation, river discharges,<br/><br>
ground water flows, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were<br/><br>
included<br/><br>
in the models. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled using a single-layer (well-mixed) a<br/><br>
two-layer (stratified) system.<br/><br>
Using the single-layer approach the water level was predicted to change from 411 m below mean sea level<br/><br>
(bmsl) (in 1997) to 391 m and 479 m bmsl (in 2097) based on water mass balances including and excluding<br/><br>
brine discharge, respectively, and to reach 402 m and 444 m for the two cases based on a salt mass balance.<br/><br>
In the two-layer approach the water level after 100 years was predicted to change from 411 m bmsl (1997)<br/><br>
to 397 m and 488 m for a water mass balance including and excluding brine discharge, respectively, and to<br/><br>
reach 387 m and 425 m for the two cases using a salt mass balance.<br/><br>
The water mixing time using the single-layer description increased from 58 to 116 years when excluding<br/><br>
brine discharge. Using the two-layer approach the exchange or mixing time increased in both layers, when<br/><br>
adding<br/><br>
brine discharge to the system, from 1.2 to 1.7 years and 11 to 15.3 years in the upper and lower layers,<br/><br>
respectively. Good agreement was found between the models and historical data.},
  author       = {Bashitialshaaer, Raed and Persson, Kenneth M and Larson, Magnus},
  issn         = {0042-2886},
  keyword      = {Mixing time,Salinity,Single-Layer and Two-Layer system,Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal (RSDSC),Dead Sea water level,Water-Salt balance,Historical comparison.},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {55--66},
  series       = {Vatten: tidskrift för vattenvård /Journal of Water Management and research},
  title        = {Mixing Time for the Dead Sea Based on Water and Salt Mass Balances},
  volume       = {66},
  year         = {2010},
}