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Harmoniserade tulltaxor. Införlivande tolkning och tillämpning av internationella regler för varuklassificering.

Moëll, Christina LU (1997)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Vid internationell handel med varor utgår olika skatter och avgifter; dessutom kan varorna vara föremål för import- och exportbegränsningar. Genom frihandelsavtal kan dock bestämmas att vissa varor får importeras och exporteras tullfritt. De bestämmelser som således gäller för olika varor sammanfattas för skilda varuslag i tulltaxan. Varuklassificeringen har därför stor betydelse för den internationella handeln. Olika nationella klassificeringssystem kan utgöra ett handelshinder. Man har därför länge strävat efter att skapa enhetligt utformade tulltaxor, vilket har resulterat i 1983 års konvention om systemet för harmoniserad varubeskrivning och kodifiering. Konventionen innehåller en... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Vid internationell handel med varor utgår olika skatter och avgifter; dessutom kan varorna vara föremål för import- och exportbegränsningar. Genom frihandelsavtal kan dock bestämmas att vissa varor får importeras och exporteras tullfritt. De bestämmelser som således gäller för olika varor sammanfattas för skilda varuslag i tulltaxan. Varuklassificeringen har därför stor betydelse för den internationella handeln. Olika nationella klassificeringssystem kan utgöra ett handelshinder. Man har därför länge strävat efter att skapa enhetligt utformade tulltaxor, vilket har resulterat i 1983 års konvention om systemet för harmoniserad varubeskrivning och kodifiering. Konventionen innehåller en modelltulltaxa - den s.k. HS-nomenklaturen - som ligger till grund för bl.a. EG:s, USA:s och Japans tulltaxor. Ryssland och flera andra länder i Östeuropa liksom Kina har också anslutit sig till systemet. I boken beskrivs HS-nomenklaturen. Vidare undersöks hur konventionen har införlivats med EG-rätten och den amerikanska rätten. För att belysa och analysera rättspraxis på området har förhandsavgöranden från EG-domstolen och avgöranden från de amerikanska domstolar som handlägger varuklassificeringsmål studerats. Syftet med rättsfallsstudien har varit att undersöka vilka tolkningsmetoder domstolarna tillämpar i dessa tullmål och vilka kriterier som läggs till grund för en varas klassificering. (Less)
Abstract
In international commerce, various taxes and charges are levied on commodities; besides, goods may be subject to import and export restrictions. However, free-trade agreements may stipulate that some goods can be imported and exported free of charge. The regulations pertaining to different types of merchandise are reflected in the customs tariff of a state or customs union. The application of many regulations in customs law is thus dependent on the classification of goods under the customs tariff. Like measures to protect trade, and trade-political sanctions, international negotiations and agreements on the liberalization of commerce require uniformity in respect of customs tariffs and regulations for the classification of goods. Different... (More)
In international commerce, various taxes and charges are levied on commodities; besides, goods may be subject to import and export restrictions. However, free-trade agreements may stipulate that some goods can be imported and exported free of charge. The regulations pertaining to different types of merchandise are reflected in the customs tariff of a state or customs union. The application of many regulations in customs law is thus dependent on the classification of goods under the customs tariff. Like measures to protect trade, and trade-political sanctions, international negotiations and agreements on the liberalization of commerce require uniformity in respect of customs tariffs and regulations for the classification of goods. Different national systems of classification may set up trade barriers. The creation of uniformly designed customs tariffs is hence a long-standing ambition which resulted in the 1983 International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System. The Convention incorporates a model customs tariff, the so-called HS nomenclature, which forms the basis for the customs tariffs of the European Union, the USA, and Japan, among others. Russia and several other East European countries have also joined the system; so has China. The present thesis describes the HS nomenclature and looks at ways in which the Convention has been transformed into EC and American legislation, considering the rules of international law against EC and American law. Preliminary rulings from the European Court of Justice, and decisions made by those American courts which handle classification cases, have been studied with a view to elucidating the interpretation and application of the regulations concerned. The aim of the court-case study was to examine the interpretive methods applied by courts to customs cases and the criteria on which the classification of a commodity is based. A major question here is whether classification should only take account of those objective qualities and characteristics of a commodity that can be established at the time of customs clearance, or whether reasons for giving special treatment to a commodity should be considered as well. In other contexts, the EC Court's interpretive method is often described as target- or system-orientated. This investigation shows that where customs cases are concerned, the Court departs from its usual interpretive approach; in this respect, too, there seem to be differences between the EC Court and American Courts. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Professor Mutén, Leif, Stockholm
organization
alternative title
Harmonized Customs Tariffs. Transformation, interpretation, and application of international law on classification of goods.
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
harmonized tariff schedules, combined nomenclature, international trade, customs tariff, classification of goods, harmonized system, European law, interpretation, EU-rätt, fiscal law, skatterätt, finansrätt, EU law
pages
439 pages
publisher
Akademibokhandel, Lund,
defense location
March 8, 1997 at 10.15 am. Carolinasalen, Kungshuset, Lundagård, Lund, Sweden
defense date
1997-03-08 10:15
external identifiers
  • Other:ISRN: LUJUDV/JUFI--97/1001--SE 439
ISBN
91-544-2281-7
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
5509ca94-9de9-4571-8998-6df7a3495ffe (old id 18156)
date added to LUP
2007-05-24 10:47:15
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:14
@misc{5509ca94-9de9-4571-8998-6df7a3495ffe,
  abstract     = {In international commerce, various taxes and charges are levied on commodities; besides, goods may be subject to import and export restrictions. However, free-trade agreements may stipulate that some goods can be imported and exported free of charge. The regulations pertaining to different types of merchandise are reflected in the customs tariff of a state or customs union. The application of many regulations in customs law is thus dependent on the classification of goods under the customs tariff. Like measures to protect trade, and trade-political sanctions, international negotiations and agreements on the liberalization of commerce require uniformity in respect of customs tariffs and regulations for the classification of goods. Different national systems of classification may set up trade barriers. The creation of uniformly designed customs tariffs is hence a long-standing ambition which resulted in the 1983 International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System. The Convention incorporates a model customs tariff, the so-called HS nomenclature, which forms the basis for the customs tariffs of the European Union, the USA, and Japan, among others. Russia and several other East European countries have also joined the system; so has China. The present thesis describes the HS nomenclature and looks at ways in which the Convention has been transformed into EC and American legislation, considering the rules of international law against EC and American law. Preliminary rulings from the European Court of Justice, and decisions made by those American courts which handle classification cases, have been studied with a view to elucidating the interpretation and application of the regulations concerned. The aim of the court-case study was to examine the interpretive methods applied by courts to customs cases and the criteria on which the classification of a commodity is based. A major question here is whether classification should only take account of those objective qualities and characteristics of a commodity that can be established at the time of customs clearance, or whether reasons for giving special treatment to a commodity should be considered as well. In other contexts, the EC Court's interpretive method is often described as target- or system-orientated. This investigation shows that where customs cases are concerned, the Court departs from its usual interpretive approach; in this respect, too, there seem to be differences between the EC Court and American Courts.},
  author       = {Moëll, Christina},
  isbn         = {91-544-2281-7},
  keyword      = {harmonized tariff schedules,combined nomenclature,international trade,customs tariff,classification of goods,harmonized system,European law,interpretation,EU-rätt,fiscal law,skatterätt,finansrätt,EU law},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {439},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0xcdb8fb8)},
  title        = {Harmoniserade tulltaxor. Införlivande tolkning och tillämpning av internationella regler för varuklassificering.},
  year         = {1997},
}