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The Argolid under Roman rule (31 BC - AD 600)

Forsell, Renée LU (2001)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen behandlar det grekiska landskapet Argolis på östra Peloponnesos och vissa aspekter av livet där under drygt 600 år av romersk överhöghet. I området har man från den tiden funnit lämningar av städer, byar, villor och gårdar så väl som speciella anläggningar för framställning av olivolja, vin och keramik, dessutom badanläggningar, akvedukter, stenbrott, hamnar, vägar, byggnader av religiös karaktär, samt gravar. Under tiden fram till ca 300 e. Kr. levde de flesta människorna i eller nära städerna. Jordbruk och djurhushållning var den vanligaste försörjningen. Det religiösa livet fortsatte som tidigare och de traditionella grekiska gudarna dyrkades. Samtidigt gavs också utrymme för... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen behandlar det grekiska landskapet Argolis på östra Peloponnesos och vissa aspekter av livet där under drygt 600 år av romersk överhöghet. I området har man från den tiden funnit lämningar av städer, byar, villor och gårdar så väl som speciella anläggningar för framställning av olivolja, vin och keramik, dessutom badanläggningar, akvedukter, stenbrott, hamnar, vägar, byggnader av religiös karaktär, samt gravar. Under tiden fram till ca 300 e. Kr. levde de flesta människorna i eller nära städerna. Jordbruk och djurhushållning var den vanligaste försörjningen. Det religiösa livet fortsatte som tidigare och de traditionella grekiska gudarna dyrkades. Samtidigt gavs också utrymme för kejsarkult i samband med de gamla kulterna. Under andra århundradet kan man se ett ökat intresse från romarnas sida för den grekiska kulturen och religionen vilket ledde till ett uppsving för en del av de stora helgedomarna. Städerna styrdes under denna tiden av en lokal elit bestående av familjer som blivit romerska medborgare. Dessa höll sig väl med Rom och accepterad gärna de romerska vanorna. Efter ca 300 e. Kr. och kristendomens införande som privilegierad religion skedde en förändring. Makten blev uppdelad på flera parter i och med att kyrkan och medlemmar av kejsarens administration blev maktfaktorer att räkna med. Städerna var fortfarande viktiga men ändrade delvis karaktär. De gamla officiella byggnaderna reparerades inte längre. Däremot byggdes kyrkor och privata villor där. Landsbygden befolkas allt mer. Byar och stora lantvillor växte upp. Flera av dessa låg vid kusten och hade egen hamn. Kanske var de också lokala marknadscentra. Överallt i området har man funnit skärvor av importerad keramik, något som också visar att handeln med omvärlden fått en ökad betydelse. I och med att landsbygden återbefolkades finner man också flera hedniska kultplatser i området. Däremot har man bara funnit rester av ett fåtal kyrkor utanför stadsmiljö. Detta tyder på att folket på landet sent övergick till den kristna läran. Kristna och anhängare av den gamla grekiska religionen tycks ha levt fredligt sida vid sida under lång tid. De bosättningsmönster som kunnat urskiljas i Argolis förekom också i andra östliga områden på det grekiska fastlandet. Den ökade aktiviteten på landsbygden som inträder med den senromerska perioden tycks ha initierats dels av kejserliga politiska beslut, dels av att området aktivt drogs in i det handelsnät som fanns i det östliga Medelhavsområdet samt närheten till Konstantinopel. (Less)
Abstract
This study focuses on the region of Argolid in the eastern part of the Greek Peloponnese during the Roman Imperial era, taking up a variety of aspects of life there based mainly on archaeological evidence. The introduction presents the study area and the background to the study. This is followed in the next chapter by a survey of the various kinds of sites of Roman date found in the Argolid. Cities, villages, villas and farmsteads are presented and discussed as are the sites and installations with non-residential functions like agricultural sites, baths, aqueducts, kilns, quarries, harbours, roads, religious sites and graves. The following chapter provides a diachronic overview of the sites. Settlement patterns for the Early, Middle and... (More)
This study focuses on the region of Argolid in the eastern part of the Greek Peloponnese during the Roman Imperial era, taking up a variety of aspects of life there based mainly on archaeological evidence. The introduction presents the study area and the background to the study. This is followed in the next chapter by a survey of the various kinds of sites of Roman date found in the Argolid. Cities, villages, villas and farmsteads are presented and discussed as are the sites and installations with non-residential functions like agricultural sites, baths, aqueducts, kilns, quarries, harbours, roads, religious sites and graves. The following chapter provides a diachronic overview of the sites. Settlement patterns for the Early, Middle and Late Roman periods are identified. While the Early and Middle Roman periods (31 BC- AD 300) were characterised by a limited variety of sites and the urban domination of the largely uninhabited countryside, the Late Roman period (AD 300-600) evidenced increased habitation in the countryside as well as greater variety of sites. The next chapter deals with three specific aspects – subsistence, religion and power structures – discussed in relation to the two defined periods in order to distinguish any diachronic developments. The agrarian economy of the early period was diversified and complemented by other activities after 300 AD, when the countryside was more intensively used. Villages and villas became more numerous, often located on the coast. Trade also increased, evidenced by the imported pottery found at most locations. Some of the villages and villas may have hosted local markets. Regarding religion, the established Greek religion prevailed, supplemented by Imperial cult in the Early/Middle Roman period and renewed interest in large sanctuaries in the second century. In the fourth century rural reoccupation was accompanied by renewed activity at rural cult places. Christianity existed mainly in the cities. Only a few early churches have been found in the countryside, where conversion was slow. Christians and pagans seem to have lived peacefully side by side. Social, economic and political power in the Early/Middle Roman period were seemingly held by local elites from Romanised families while in the Late Roman period society, this structure was augmented by new power factors such as the Church and members of the Emperor's staff, sharing the power with the existing city councils. The cities changed character: old monumental buildings were not repaired, while private urban villas were built. By that point, all levels of society showed signs of Romanisation. The patterns shown in the Argolid are consistent with those in other eastern mainland areas. The settlement pattern change at the beginning of the Late Roman period was part of a more profound, systematic shift involving many areas of the Argive society, created by a combination of Imperial policy, increased activity in the Eastern Mediterranean trading network and the proximity to Constantinople. (Less)
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author
opponent
  • Lektor Poulsen, Birthe, Odense, Danmark
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Antikens och forntidens historia, Ancient history, power structures, social structure, Christianisation, religious life, trade, subsistence, settlement patterns, Western Argolid, Southern Argolid, Methana, Troizenia, Epidaurea, Late Roman Greece, Argolid, Roman Greece, History of the Christian church, Kristna kyrkans historia, Cultural anthropology, ethnology, Kulturantropologi, etnologi
pages
155 pages
publisher
Classical archaeology and ancient history
defense location
Carolinasalen, Kungshuset, Lundagård
defense date
2001-09-29 10:15
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
78160d17-d660-4729-b1e3-1ad222261db6 (old id 19972)
date added to LUP
2007-05-25 15:34:22
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:10
@misc{78160d17-d660-4729-b1e3-1ad222261db6,
  abstract     = {This study focuses on the region of Argolid in the eastern part of the Greek Peloponnese during the Roman Imperial era, taking up a variety of aspects of life there based mainly on archaeological evidence. The introduction presents the study area and the background to the study. This is followed in the next chapter by a survey of the various kinds of sites of Roman date found in the Argolid. Cities, villages, villas and farmsteads are presented and discussed as are the sites and installations with non-residential functions like agricultural sites, baths, aqueducts, kilns, quarries, harbours, roads, religious sites and graves. The following chapter provides a diachronic overview of the sites. Settlement patterns for the Early, Middle and Late Roman periods are identified. While the Early and Middle Roman periods (31 BC- AD 300) were characterised by a limited variety of sites and the urban domination of the largely uninhabited countryside, the Late Roman period (AD 300-600) evidenced increased habitation in the countryside as well as greater variety of sites. The next chapter deals with three specific aspects – subsistence, religion and power structures – discussed in relation to the two defined periods in order to distinguish any diachronic developments. The agrarian economy of the early period was diversified and complemented by other activities after 300 AD, when the countryside was more intensively used. Villages and villas became more numerous, often located on the coast. Trade also increased, evidenced by the imported pottery found at most locations. Some of the villages and villas may have hosted local markets. Regarding religion, the established Greek religion prevailed, supplemented by Imperial cult in the Early/Middle Roman period and renewed interest in large sanctuaries in the second century. In the fourth century rural reoccupation was accompanied by renewed activity at rural cult places. Christianity existed mainly in the cities. Only a few early churches have been found in the countryside, where conversion was slow. Christians and pagans seem to have lived peacefully side by side. Social, economic and political power in the Early/Middle Roman period were seemingly held by local elites from Romanised families while in the Late Roman period society, this structure was augmented by new power factors such as the Church and members of the Emperor's staff, sharing the power with the existing city councils. The cities changed character: old monumental buildings were not repaired, while private urban villas were built. By that point, all levels of society showed signs of Romanisation. The patterns shown in the Argolid are consistent with those in other eastern mainland areas. The settlement pattern change at the beginning of the Late Roman period was part of a more profound, systematic shift involving many areas of the Argive society, created by a combination of Imperial policy, increased activity in the Eastern Mediterranean trading network and the proximity to Constantinople.},
  author       = {Forsell, Renée},
  keyword      = {Antikens och forntidens historia,Ancient history,power structures,social structure,Christianisation,religious life,trade,subsistence,settlement patterns,Western Argolid,Southern Argolid,Methana,Troizenia,Epidaurea,Late Roman Greece,Argolid,Roman Greece,History of the Christian church,Kristna kyrkans historia,Cultural anthropology,ethnology,Kulturantropologi,etnologi},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {155},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x89e8878)},
  title        = {The Argolid under Roman rule (31 BC - AD 600)},
  year         = {2001},
}