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Energy Use, Efficiency Gains and Emission Abatement in Transitional Industrialised Economies: Poland and the Baltic States

Salay, Jürgen LU (1999)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen är en studie av hur energianvändning och luftföroreningar i Polen, Estland, Lettland och Litauen har förändrats under övergången till marknadsekonomi efter 1989. Avhandlingen består av sex artiklar, vilka behandlar tre aspekter av dessa förändringar.



I de tre första artiklarna analyseras energistrukturen i de baltiska länderna Artikel I) och Polen (Artikel II och III) vid inledningen av övergången till marknadsekonomi. Resultaten av analysen visar att dessa länder hade en primärenergiförbrukning per BNP som var två till tre gånger högre än i utvecklade marknadsekonomier i Västeuropa på grund av en mer energiintensiv ekonomisk struktur och högre specifik... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen är en studie av hur energianvändning och luftföroreningar i Polen, Estland, Lettland och Litauen har förändrats under övergången till marknadsekonomi efter 1989. Avhandlingen består av sex artiklar, vilka behandlar tre aspekter av dessa förändringar.



I de tre första artiklarna analyseras energistrukturen i de baltiska länderna Artikel I) och Polen (Artikel II och III) vid inledningen av övergången till marknadsekonomi. Resultaten av analysen visar att dessa länder hade en primärenergiförbrukning per BNP som var två till tre gånger högre än i utvecklade marknadsekonomier i Västeuropa på grund av en mer energiintensiv ekonomisk struktur och högre specifik energiintensitet i de flesta ekonomiska sektorer. Den höga energiintensiteten i de baltiska länderna och Polen ledde också till betydligt högre utsläpp av luftföroreningar per primärenergiförbrukning och per BNP än i Västeuropa. Andra orsaker till den höga utsläppsintensiteten i de östeuropeiska länderna var dominansen av fossila bränslen i el- och värmeproduktionen samt den ineffektiva kontrollen av luftföroreningar.



Under övergångens första åt föll energiförbrukningen kraftigt som ett resultat av en skarp nedgång i industriproduktionen och snabbt stigande bränslepriser. I de baltiska staterna berodde tillbakagången av energiförbrukningen även på avbrott i olje- och gasleveranser från Ryssland.



Den andra gruppen av artiklar (Artikel IV och V) analyserar förändringar i elproduktion, bränsleförbrukning, verkningsgrad och utsläpp av svaveldioxid i den polska kraftindustrin mellan 1988 och 1997. Resultaten visar att utsläppen av svaveldioxid minskade med 45 procent under denna period. Utsläppsminskningen var delvis en följd av minskad elproduktion på grund av den ekonomiska tillbakagången i början av 1990-talet. Andra orsaker var emellertid viktigare. En viktig orsak till utsläppsminskningen var omstruktureringen av kraftindustrin, vilken innebar att kraftverken blev självfinansierande och miste möjligheten till statliga subventioner samtidigt som priset på kol höjdes kraftigt. En annan orsak var reformen av miljövården i Polen, vilken ledde till striktare kontroll av utsläpp av luftföroreningar. Tillsammans skapade dessa åtgärder starka incitament för kraftverken att köpa kol med högre värmevärde och lägre svavelhalt. De höjda kolpriserna och avskaffade subventionerna fick även kraftverken att förbättra elproduktionens verkningsgrad, vilket ytterligare bidrog till utsläppsminskningen.



En andra fas i utsläppsminskningen inträdde efter 1994 då utsläppen av svaveldioxid fortsatte att minska tack vare att kraftverken började installera avsvavlingsutrustning. Under denna fas har framför allt två faktorer drivit kraftverkens insatser för att minska utsläppen: Polens undertecknande av det andra svavelprotokollet, och Polens ansökan om medlemsskap i EU, vilken innebär en anpassning till EU:s miljölagstiftning.



Avhandlingens sista artikel är en jämförande studie av konverteringar av värmepannor för fjärrvärmeproduktion från fossila bränslen till träbränslen. Sex konverteringar i de baltiska länderna jämfördes med sju konverteringar i Ryssland och Tjeckien. Resultaten visar att de baltiska pannkonverteringarna ledde till minskade bränslekostnader och kostnadseffektiv utsläppsminskning av svaveldioxid och koldioxid. Dessutom bidrog konverteringarna till teknik- och kunskapsöverföring, minskade bränsleimporten samt skapade lokala marknader för biobränslen. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis is a study of how energy use and air pollution in Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have been affected by the economic transition after 1989. It consists of six articles, which examine three different aspects of these changes.



The first group of articles analyses the structure of energy use in the Baltic states (Article I) and Poland Articles II and III) at the outset of transition. The results show that these countries had a primary energy consumption per GDP which was two to three times higher than in developed market economies because of a more energy intensive structure of the economy and higher specific energy intensities in many sectors of the economy. They also had significantly higher levels of... (More)
This thesis is a study of how energy use and air pollution in Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have been affected by the economic transition after 1989. It consists of six articles, which examine three different aspects of these changes.



The first group of articles analyses the structure of energy use in the Baltic states (Article I) and Poland Articles II and III) at the outset of transition. The results show that these countries had a primary energy consumption per GDP which was two to three times higher than in developed market economies because of a more energy intensive structure of the economy and higher specific energy intensities in many sectors of the economy. They also had significantly higher levels of air pollution per primary energy consumption and GDP because of a heavy reliance on fossil fuels, an energy intensive economy and an ineffective control of emissions. The deep fall in energy consumption during the first phase of transition was due to a sharp drop in industrial output and higher fuel prices. In the Baltic states, part of the fall in energy consumption was the result of shortfalls in the supply of oil and gas from Russia.



The second group of articles (Articles IV and V) examines changes in electricity production, fuel consumption, generation efficiency and sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions in the Polish power industry between 1988 and 1997. The results show that SO2 emissions dropped by 45 per cent between 1988 and 1997. The drop in emissions was partly the result of a fall in economic activity and electricity production in the early 1990s. Other reasons were more important. One reason was the restructuring of the power industry, during which hard budget constraints were introduced and the price of coal was raised. Another reason for the fall in emissions was the reorganisation and stricter enforcement of environmental protection. Together, these reforms created strong incentives for power plants to switch to high-quality coal with lower sulphur and ash content. Because of higher coal prices and the introduction of hard budget constraints, power plants improved their generation efficiency, which also contributed to the reduction of emissions. After 1994, the decline in SO2 emissions has continued thanks to the installation of pollution abatment equipment.



The final article (Article VI) analyses the conversion of small boilers for heat production from fossil to biomass fuels. It compares the results of six boiler conversion projects in the Baltic states with seven projects in Russia and the Czech Republic. The results show that the conversions in the Baltic states reduced the fuel cost of heat production and achieved cost-effective reductions of SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2). It also resulted in transfer of technology and know-how, less dependence on imported fuels and the creation of local markets for biofuels. (Less)
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author
opponent
  • Professor Gula, Adam, University of Mining and Metallurgy, Kraków
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
implementation, sustainable energy, renewable energy, electricity production, power industry, Baltic states, Poland, transition, sulphur dioxide, air pollution, energy efficiency, Energy, energy use, Environmental technology, pollution control, Miljöteknik, kontroll av utsläpp, Energy research, Energiforskning
pages
216 pages
publisher
Department of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund university
defense location
Hörsal A, Matematikhuset, Sölvegatan 18, Lund
defense date
1999-06-03 13:15
external identifiers
  • Other:ISRN: LUTFD2/TFEM -- 99/1020 -- SE + (1-216)
ISBN
91-88360-43-1
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
3ee66809-96a0-49b7-b10a-ad8e6d0fabdc (old id 39748)
date added to LUP
2007-08-01 11:20:19
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:13
@misc{3ee66809-96a0-49b7-b10a-ad8e6d0fabdc,
  abstract     = {This thesis is a study of how energy use and air pollution in Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have been affected by the economic transition after 1989. It consists of six articles, which examine three different aspects of these changes.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The first group of articles analyses the structure of energy use in the Baltic states (Article I) and Poland Articles II and III) at the outset of transition. The results show that these countries had a primary energy consumption per GDP which was two to three times higher than in developed market economies because of a more energy intensive structure of the economy and higher specific energy intensities in many sectors of the economy. They also had significantly higher levels of air pollution per primary energy consumption and GDP because of a heavy reliance on fossil fuels, an energy intensive economy and an ineffective control of emissions. The deep fall in energy consumption during the first phase of transition was due to a sharp drop in industrial output and higher fuel prices. In the Baltic states, part of the fall in energy consumption was the result of shortfalls in the supply of oil and gas from Russia.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The second group of articles (Articles IV and V) examines changes in electricity production, fuel consumption, generation efficiency and sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions in the Polish power industry between 1988 and 1997. The results show that SO2 emissions dropped by 45 per cent between 1988 and 1997. The drop in emissions was partly the result of a fall in economic activity and electricity production in the early 1990s. Other reasons were more important. One reason was the restructuring of the power industry, during which hard budget constraints were introduced and the price of coal was raised. Another reason for the fall in emissions was the reorganisation and stricter enforcement of environmental protection. Together, these reforms created strong incentives for power plants to switch to high-quality coal with lower sulphur and ash content. Because of higher coal prices and the introduction of hard budget constraints, power plants improved their generation efficiency, which also contributed to the reduction of emissions. After 1994, the decline in SO2 emissions has continued thanks to the installation of pollution abatment equipment.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The final article (Article VI) analyses the conversion of small boilers for heat production from fossil to biomass fuels. It compares the results of six boiler conversion projects in the Baltic states with seven projects in Russia and the Czech Republic. The results show that the conversions in the Baltic states reduced the fuel cost of heat production and achieved cost-effective reductions of SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2). It also resulted in transfer of technology and know-how, less dependence on imported fuels and the creation of local markets for biofuels.},
  author       = {Salay, Jürgen},
  isbn         = {91-88360-43-1},
  keyword      = {implementation,sustainable energy,renewable energy,electricity production,power industry,Baltic states,Poland,transition,sulphur dioxide,air pollution,energy efficiency,Energy,energy use,Environmental technology,pollution control,Miljöteknik,kontroll av utsläpp,Energy research,Energiforskning},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {216},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x8c3df48)},
  title        = {Energy Use, Efficiency Gains and Emission Abatement in Transitional Industrialised Economies: Poland and the Baltic States},
  year         = {1999},
}