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Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: dynamics, impacts and research priorities

Myers-Smith, Isla H; Forbes, Bruce C; Wilmking, Martin; Hallinger, Martin; Lantz, Trevor; Blok, Daan LU ; Tape, Ken D; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Sass-Klaassen, Ute and Lévesque, Esther, et al. (2011) In Environmental Research Letters 6(4). p.045509-045509
Abstract
Recent research using repeat photography, long-term ecological monitoring and dendrochronology has documented shrub expansion in arctic, high-latitude and alpine tundra ecosystems. Here, we (1) synthesize these findings, (2) present a conceptual framework that identifies mechanisms and constraints on shrub increase, (3) explore causes, feedbacks and implications of the increased shrub cover in tundra ecosystems, and (4) address potential lines of investigation for future research. Satellite observations from around the circumpolar Arctic, showing increased productivity, measured as changes in ‘greenness’, have coincided with a general rise in high-latitude air temperatures and have been partly attributed to increases in shrub cover.... (More)
Recent research using repeat photography, long-term ecological monitoring and dendrochronology has documented shrub expansion in arctic, high-latitude and alpine tundra ecosystems. Here, we (1) synthesize these findings, (2) present a conceptual framework that identifies mechanisms and constraints on shrub increase, (3) explore causes, feedbacks and implications of the increased shrub cover in tundra ecosystems, and (4) address potential lines of investigation for future research. Satellite observations from around the circumpolar Arctic, showing increased productivity, measured as changes in ‘greenness’, have coincided with a general rise in high-latitude air temperatures and have been partly attributed to increases in shrub cover. Studies indicate that warming temperatures, changes in snow cover, altered disturbance regimes as a result of permafrost thaw, tundra fires, and anthropogenic activities or changes in herbivory intensity are all contributing to observed changes in shrub abundance. A large-scale increase in shrub cover will change the structure of tundra ecosystems and alter energy fluxes, regional climate, soil–atmosphere exchange of water, carbon and nutrients, and ecological interactions between species. In order to project future rates of shrub expansion and understand the feedbacks to ecosystem and climate processes, future research should investigate the species or trait-specific responses of shrubs to climate change including: (1) the temperature sensitivity of shrub growth, (2) factors controlling the recruitment of new individuals, and (3) the relative influence of the positive and negative feedbacks involved in shrub expansion. (Less)
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@misc{39b8f4c0-e997-4297-9317-b72e8e496776,
  abstract     = {Recent research using repeat photography, long-term ecological monitoring and dendrochronology has documented shrub expansion in arctic, high-latitude and alpine tundra ecosystems. Here, we (1) synthesize these findings, (2) present a conceptual framework that identifies mechanisms and constraints on shrub increase, (3) explore causes, feedbacks and implications of the increased shrub cover in tundra ecosystems, and (4) address potential lines of investigation for future research. Satellite observations from around the circumpolar Arctic, showing increased productivity, measured as changes in ‘greenness’, have coincided with a general rise in high-latitude air temperatures and have been partly attributed to increases in shrub cover. Studies indicate that warming temperatures, changes in snow cover, altered disturbance regimes as a result of permafrost thaw, tundra fires, and anthropogenic activities or changes in herbivory intensity are all contributing to observed changes in shrub abundance. A large-scale increase in shrub cover will change the structure of tundra ecosystems and alter energy fluxes, regional climate, soil–atmosphere exchange of water, carbon and nutrients, and ecological interactions between species. In order to project future rates of shrub expansion and understand the feedbacks to ecosystem and climate processes, future research should investigate the species or trait-specific responses of shrubs to climate change including: (1) the temperature sensitivity of shrub growth, (2) factors controlling the recruitment of new individuals, and (3) the relative influence of the positive and negative feedbacks involved in shrub expansion.},
  author       = {Myers-Smith, Isla H and Forbes, Bruce C and Wilmking, Martin and Hallinger, Martin and Lantz, Trevor and Blok, Daan and Tape, Ken D and Macias-Fauria, Marc and Sass-Klaassen, Ute and Lévesque, Esther and Boudreau, Stéphane and Ropars, Pascale and Hermanutz, Luise and Trant, Andrew and Collier, Laura Siegwart and Weijers, Stef and Rozema, Jelte and Rayback, Shelly A and Schmidt, Niels Martin and Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela and Wipf, Sonja and Rixen, Christian and Ménard, Cécile B and Venn, Susanna and Goetz, Scott and Andreu-Hayles, Laia and Elmendorf, Sarah and Ravolainen, Virve and Welker, Jeffrey and Grogan, Paul and Epstein, Howard E and Hik, David S},
  issn         = {1748-9326},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {045509--045509},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x9df26c0)},
  series       = {Environmental Research Letters},
  title        = {Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: dynamics, impacts and research priorities},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045509},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2011},
}